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Chapter 7

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  1. Chapter 7 Qualitative Research

  2. Learning Objectives Understand . . . How qualitative methodologies differ from quantitative methodologies. The controversy surrounding qualitative research. The types of decisions that use qualitative methodologies. The different qualitative research methodologies.

  3. Pull Quote • “Sometimes people are layered. There’s • something totally different underneath than • what’s on the surface . . . like pie.” • Joss Whedon, • author and screenwriter

  4. Qualitative Research and the Research Process

  5. Group Interviews Observation Ethnography Grounded Theory Qualitative Research Focus Groups IDIs Data Collection Techniques Case Studies Action Research

  6. Textual Analysis Artifacts Behavioral Observations Trace Evidence Debriefings Qualitative Research Other Techniques

  7. Job Analysis Advertising Concept Development Productivity Enhancement New Product Development Benefits Management Retail Design Process Understanding Union Representation Market Segmentation Sales Analysis Qualitative Research in Business

  8. Data Sources People Organizations Texts Environments Artifacts/ media products Events and happenings

  9. The Roots of Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Economics Psychology Sociology Semiotics Anthropology Communication

  10. Distinction between Qualitative & Quantitative Theory Building Theory Testing

  11. Qualitative Understanding Interpretation Quantitative Description Explanation Focus of Research

  12. Qualitative High Participation-based Quantitative Limited Controlled Researcher Involvement

  13. Qualitative Longitudinal Multi-method Quantitative Cross-sectional or longitudinal Single method Time Duration

  14. Qualitative Non-probability Purposive Small sample Quantitative Probability Large sample Sample Design and Size

  15. Qualitative Verbal or pictorial Reduced to verbal codes Quantitative Verbal descriptions Reduced to numeric codes Data Type and Preparation

  16. Qualitative Shorter turnaround possible Insight development ongoing Quantitative May be time-consuming Insight development follows data entry Turnaround

  17. Data Analysis • Qualitative • Nonquantitative • Human judgment mixed with fact • Emphasis on themes • Quantitative • Computerized analysis • Facts distinguished • Emphasis on counts

  18. Qualitative Research and the Research Process

  19. Pretasking Activities Use product in home Bring visual stimuli Create collage Keep diaries Draw pictures Construct a story

  20. Pretasking Activities

  21. Formulating theQualitative Research Question

  22. Project’s purpose Researcher characteristics Schedule Types of participants Budget Topics Choosing the Qualitative Method Factors

  23. NonProbability Sampling Purposive Sampling Snowball Sampling Convenience Sampling

  24. Qualitative Sampling General sampling rule: Keep conducting interviews until no new insights are gained.

  25. The Interview Question Hierarchy

  26. Recommends topics and questions Controls interview Plans location and facilities Proposes criteria for drawing sample Writes screener Recruits participants Develops pretasking activities Prepares research tools Supervises transcription Helps analyze data Draws insights Writes report Interviewer Responsibilities

  27. Heading Screening requirements Identity information Introduction Security questions Demographic questions Behavior questions Lifestyle questions Attitudinal and knowledge questions Articulation and creative questions Offer/ Termination Elements of a Recruitment Screener

  28. Interview Formats Unstructured Semi-structured Structured

  29. Requirements: Unstructured Interviews Developed dialog Distinctions Probe for answers Interviewer creativity Interviewer skill

  30. The Interview Mode Individual Group

  31. IDI vs Group Research Objective Topic Concerns Participants

  32. Oral histories Sequential interviewing Life histories Cultural interviews Critical incident techniques Research Using IDIs Types Ethnography

  33. MET Semantic Mapping Sentence Completion Sensory sorts Cartoons Imagination Exercises Component Sorts Thematic Apperception Projective Techniques Laddering Association Data Collection Techniques

  34. PicProfile: Projective Techniques Anderson Analytics uses a cast of characters during interviewing.

  35. Mini-Groups Dyads Triads Small Groups Focus Groups Supergroups Group Interviews

  36. Determining the Number of Groups Scope Number of distinct segments Desired number of ideas Desired level of detail Level of distinction Homogeneity

  37. Group Interview Modes Face-to-Face Telephone Online Videoconference

  38. Combining Qualitative Methodologies Case Study Action Research

  39. Triangulation: Merging Qualitative and Quantitative Conduct studies simultaneously Ongoing qualitative with multiple waves of quantitative Perform series: Qualitative, Quantitative, Qualitative Quantitative precedes Qualitative

  40. Key Terms • Action research • Case study • CAPI • Content analysis • Creativity session • Ethnography • Focus groups • Group interview • IDI • Convergent interviewing • Critical incident technique • Cultural interviews • Grounded theory • Life histories • Oral history • Sequential interviewing • Interview

  41. Key Terms (cont.) • Interview guide • Moderator • Non-probability sampling • Pretasking • Probability sampling • Qualitative research • Quantitative research • Recruitment screener • Triangulation • Projective techniques • Cartoons • Component sorts • Imagination exercises • Laddering • Metaphor Elicitation Technique • Semantic mapping • Brand mapping • Sensory sorts • Sentence completion • Thematic Apperception Test • Word or picture association

  42. Chapter 7 Additional Discussion opportunities

  43. Snapshot: Performance Review Informal Feedback More Complete More timely Public web “venting” Social networking

  44. Snapshot: Problems with Focus Groups Dominators Cynics Hostiles Proselytizers Blatherers Wallflowers CoModerators

  45. Snapshot: Hallmark Reveal connection dilemmas Senior managers listening

  46. Snapshot: Home Depot Mystery Shopping Compare research to results Rethink questions & observations Add a conversation with participants

  47. Research Thought Leader “Most of what influences what we say and do occurs below the level of awareness. That’s why we need new techniques: to get at hidden knowledge – to get at what people don’t know they know.” Gerald Zaltman Emeritus Professor, Harvard Creator, Zmet technique

  48. Research Thought Leader “It is better to think of the Web . . . as the sounds of independent voices, just like the street corner soapbox preacher or that friend of yours who always recommends the best books.” David Meerman Scott marketing strategist and author, The New Rules of Marketing and PR

  49. PulsePoint: Research Revelation 62 The percent of wealthy consumers reporting that the state of the economy has changed their view of luxury purchases . . . that flaunting luxury is insensitive.

  50. Chapter 7 Qualitative Research