Protestant - Originally the term for Luther’s supporters who “protested” against Catholic loyalists in Germany • Reformation - A movement begun in the 1500s to make corrective changes (reforms) to the Catholic Church.
What forms of corruption existed within the Church during the Late Middle Ages? • Popes used excommunication to force monarchs to obey the Church. • Many priest were illiterate • Many clergy broke their vows of chastity • Some officials lead lives of luxury and leisure • Some clergy: • Charged repentant Christians to see holy remains and objects • Sold church offices to the highest bidder (simony) • Sold indulgences
How was the power of the papacy weakened? 1.) Babylonian Captivity (1305-1375) • Philip IV (France) quarreled with pope over his power to tax the clergy • Pope Boniface kidnapped in 1296 and replaced with French pope, Clement V • Seven popes ruled the Church from Avignon, France • Many Christians thought these popes were only puppets of the French king
How was the power of the papacy weakened? 2.)The Great Schism (1378-1417) • Papacy moved back to Rome in 1376 • French cardinals elected a new pope, Clement VII • Both Urban VI and Clement VII claimed to be the rightful pope • Many Christians questioned the authority of the papacy
Who were some of the first people to speak out against Church corruption and teachings? John Wycliffe of England • Thought Christians didn’t need Church or sacraments to achieve salvation • Regarded Bible as most important source of religious authority • Completed first translation of Bible to English • Outcome: the Church persecuted his followers, the Lollards, as heretics
Who were some of the first people to speak out against Church corruption and teachings? Jan Huss of Bohemia • Criticized wealth of Church • Wanted religious services conducted in the language of the worshippers • Opposed the sale of indulgences • Outcome: was burned at stake for refusing to accept importance of church rituals
In what other ways did people call for reform? Catherine of Siena • Popularized mysticism • Believed people could experience God through intense prayer • Outcome: maintained that Christians didn’t need priests, rituals, or sacraments. Girolamo Savonarola of Florence • Launched crusade against immoral society • Encouraged book burning • Claimed Vatican was filled with sin and corruption • Outcome: was burned at stake by angry citizens of Florence.
What was his early life like? • Son of middle-class German parents • Studied law • Became a Catholic monk
Why did Luther question Church practices and teaching? • Troubled by idea that salvation was attainable through good works • Interpreted St. Paul to mean that path to salvation was by faith alone • Believed forgiveness for sins could come only from God’s mercy • Angered by Tezel’s sale of indulgence
How did his criticisms expand into an effort to form a new church? • Wrote 95 Theses to start debate on Church abuses • Published books and pamphlets questioning Church teachings • Ideas for reform led to a new church: • Congregations choose their own ministers • Worship of saints and holy days was considered sinful • Mass conducted in German instead of Latin • Clergy allowed to marry
Why did his reforms create widespread revolt in Germany? • Peasants, believing everyone was equal under God, revolted against lords • Princes, who wanted freedom from the pope, seized Church land • Peace of Augsburg forced many to move in order to worship freely
How did Luther’s ideas reflect Humanism? • Why did the Catholic Church see Luther as a threat?
What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Anabaptists (1525): • Thought Christians should not be baptized until adulthood • Believed true Christians should form a separate community • separation of Church and State; were pacifists (refused to fight in wars).
What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Anglicans (1534): founded by King Henry VIII of England • King Henry enraged by pope’s decision not to grant him divorce • Believed the monarch, not the pope, was supreme religious authority of England • Broke away, but beliefs were almost the same as the Catholic Church
What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Calvinists (1546): founded by John Calvin • John Calvin was born in France and was only 12 years old when Martin Luther was standing trial and refusing to recant at the Council of Worms. • But Calvin heard about the controversy and, even at 12, was intrigued by the excommunicated monk Luther’s bold defense of himself and his belief in the Scriptures. • To stand in a courtroom and defend oneself against the powerful Church was an enticing scenario to young Calvin who decides to study law at the University of Paris
John Calvin • Believed in predestination (God had predetermined who would obtain salvation) • Thought a disciplined, austere life would prove who had been chosen • Government should be in the hands of religious leaders (a theocracy) and society should be governed by strict laws of morality.
Why did Protestantism spread beyond Germany? • Political leaders look for ways to escape power of Catholic Church • People were tired of Church abuses and corruption • Charismatic individuals questioned Church teachings and provided leadership • Rising literacy rate allowed for rapid spread of new ideas