Spread of Protestantism The Radical Reformation
The Holy Roman Empire in the 16c Theology-the study of religion
Wars of Religion The special court used by the Catholic Church to try and punish heretics was… The inquisition
Calvin and Calvinism • John Calvin fled Catholic France for Switzerland after he converted to Protestantism. • He placed a new emphasis on the all-powerful nature of God–what Calvin called the “power, grace, and glory of God.” • This led him to the important idea ofpredestination, which meant that God in an had determined in advance who would be saved (the elect) and who would be damned (the reprobate). http://www.historyguide .org/images/calvin.jpg
Calvin and Calvinism • He set up a court to oversee the moral life and doctrinal purity of Genevans. • People who deviated could be punished, even for such “crimes” as dancing and gambling. http://www.midway.org/atf/cf/%7BF2639556-5527-41A0-B327-5DAF8D139628%7D/Dancing%20Boy.jpg
Calvin and Calvinism • Calvin’s success in Geneva made it a powerful center of Protestantism. • Missionaries trained in Geneva were sent throughout Europe. • By the mid-sixteenth century, Calvinism had replaced Lutheranism as the most important form of Protestantism.
Huguenots – people of wealth in France who converted to Calvinism Bloody civil wars against Catholics in France 1598 Henry IV issued Edict of Nantes saying Huguenots had freedom of worship
Wars of Religion But there is more….
The Anabaptists Dutch persecution of Anabaptists (Mennonites)
The Anabaptists and Effects on the Role of Women (cont.) • Based on New Testament accounts of early Christianity, Anabaptists considered all believers equal. • Any member of the community could be a minister because all Christians were considered priests. • Women were often excluded from the ministry, however.
The Anabaptists and Effects on the Role of Women (cont.) • Anabaptists believed in the complete separation of church and state. • Government was not to even have political authority over real Christians. • Anabaptists would not hold office or bear arms. • They took literally the biblical commandment to not kill. • Their political and religious beliefs caused Anabaptists to be branded dangerous radicals.
The metal cattle catcher was called an Anabaptist Catcher. The Anabaptist, meaning second baptism, was used by the state churches to describe those who believed in adult baptism. Today, the term is accepted by these very groups. • Protestants and Catholics agreed on the need to persecute Anabaptists. • Contemporary Mennonites and Amish are Anabaptist communities. http://www.uwec.edu/Geography/Ivogeler/w188/utopian/persecution.htm
Radical Reformation What was their view of women?
Protestantism continued the traditional subservience and obedience of the wife. • Woman’s role was to bear children. • This function was part of the divine plan, according to Luther and Calvin. • Protestantism did not change women’s subordinate place in society.
Maps and Charts 4 Remember the Peace of Augsburg of 1555? What can you say about geography and Rome and new religions? As these territorial boundaries change there is increasing religious Tension especially when Calvinism joins in battle of faith (they weren’t mentioned in the Peace of Augsburg) This will lead to the Thirty Years War between Catholic and Protestants
The Thirty Years' War broke out in 1618 and concluded in 1648 with the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia. The agreement reaffirmed the Peace of Augsburg, but added Calvinism to the religious choices. Maps and Charts 4
Maps and Charts 4 So what changes did the Catholics make to stop the spread of Catholicism? It’s the Catholic Reformation… the Catholic Church set two goals, one external and one internal. Externally, the Church sought to attack Protestantism wherever it existed and tried to reconvert Protestants back to Catholicism. Internally, the Church wanted to reform the age-old abuses and reenergize Catholicism
The Catholic Reformation In addition to attempts to stop the spread of Protestantism, the Catholic Church looked at itself and enacted internal reforms. This reforming spirit culminated with the Council of Trent that lasted on and off from 1545-1563. In the town of Trent, Catholic officials met to consider what changes were necessary. The Council cracked down on simony, pluralism and absenteeism. It also helped increase the level of education of the clergy.
The Catholic Reformation Changes made at the Council of Trent? • No more simony • It also helped increase the level of education of the clergy. 3. outlawed the selling of indulgences, the practice of granting indulgences continued. 4. Created the Indexof Forbidden Books- a collection of books or writings not allowed. "turning-point in the freedom of enquiry" in the Catholic world. Kepler’s Scientific Works Martin Luther’s 95 Theses
The Catholic Reformation • 2. • Another arm of the internal reform movement was an order known as the Society of Jesus. Founded by Ignatius of Loyola, the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, sought to help Catholics rediscover their faith. • Ignatius wrote a handbook, The Spiritual Exercises, to help Catholics study and practice Catholicism. • The ranks of the Jesuits grew quickly and they spread out all over the world to convert and preach a disciplined Catholic morality. • Ultimately, the efforts of these loyal shock troops paid off, as many Protestants reconverted to Catholicism.
The Catholic Reformation • The three duties of Jesuits: • Educate the masses • Live simply and humbly • Travel to spread the word of Jesus as in the Catholic Church
Reviewing Key Facts History How did Ignatius of Loyola help to reform Catholicism? He helped reform Catholicism by establishing the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits, a religious order that took a special vow of absolute obedience to the pope and used education to spread their messages, restoring Catholicism to parts of Germany and eastern Europe and spreading it to other parts of the world.
ReformationEurope(Late 16c) The results of the Reformation Power of Pope weakened End of religious unity of Europe Encouraged spread of education Strengthened power of monarchs
Exit Ticket Pick one of our 3 main themes: Man and environment Man and man Man and ideas Pick any one of the major topics we have discussed in this unit and (in at least 5 smart sentences) tell me how that fits into one of these themes