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The Spread of Protestantism PowerPoint Presentation
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The Spread of Protestantism

The Spread of Protestantism

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The Spread of Protestantism

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  1. The differences within the movement The Spread of Protestantism

  2. Swiss Reformers • Huldrych Zwingli, a priest, led the Protestant movement in Switzerland in the early 1500s. • Like Luther, stressed salvation by faith alone • Unlike Luther, wanted to break completely from Catholic tradition and establish a theocracy, or church-run state, in Zurich • In 1525 he did but soon after civil war broke out over Protestant activity and Zwingli and his force were defeated by an army of Catholics

  3. John Calvin • Grew up in Catholic France at the start of the Reformation • Educated in theology (study of religion), law, and humanism • He wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536

  4. Calvin’s Theology • Belief that God possessed all-encompassing power and knowledge • God determines the fate of every person • He called this doctrine predestination (Don’t worry about it, it’s already been decided!)

  5. Consistory • Calvin tried to turn Geneva into a model religious community • Established the Consistory, a church council of 12 elders • They were given power to control almost every aspect of people’s lives

  6. Citizens • All citizens had to attend Reformed church services several times a week • The Consistory inspected homes annually to make sure that no one was disobeying laws • Harsh punishments were dispensed to people who disobeyed the laws NO… • Drunkenness • Fighting • Swearing • Gambling • Card playing • Dancing

  7. The Success of Calvinism • It was led by local councils of ministers and elected church members so it was easy to establish in most countries • It had a somewhat democratic structure which inspired intense loyalty • Calvinism became a dynamic social force in western Europe

  8. John Knox • Leader of Scotland Reformation • Said to “Obey rulers as long as they do not disobey God.”

  9. Radical Reformers • Called the Anabaptists • Initiated only adult members by baptism • This was contrast to Catholic and Protestant faiths which baptized infants • Chose to separate themselves from what they saw as a sinful society

  10. Anabaptists • In 1534 some fanatical Anabaptists seized Munster, Germany • Burned books, seized property, and practiced polygamy (having more than one wife) • Lutherans and Catholics united to kill all Anabaptists so many survivors fled to America • Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish all trace their ancestry to the Anabaptists

  11. England’s Church • King Henry VIII wanted a divorce from his wife Queen Catherine of Aragon (a Spanish princess) • He believed Catherine was too old to have more children and she had given him no heir to the throne • He decided to marry the seductive Anne Boleyn

  12. No Divorce! • The Pope refused Henry’s request for a divorce • So, Henry passed a series of laws that separated the English Church from the Pope • The Act of Supremacy passed in 1534 made Henry the head of the English Church instead of the Pope • He was then freed from marriage with Catherine and married Anne

  13. An Absolute Monarch • Why did Henry seek Parliament’s support in breaking with the Catholic Church? • To show that breaking from the Catholic Church was the will of the English people, not merely a whim of his own

  14. Henry’s Women • Catherine of Aragon – divorced • Anne Boleyn – beheaded (adultery) • Jane Seymour – died after birth to Edward • Anne of Cleves – divorced (immediately) • Catherine Howard – beheaded (adultery) • Catherine Parr - survived

  15. Catherine of Aragon • Henry’s first Queen • Loved by England, true and virtuous Queen • Has daughter---Mary (will become known as Bloody Mary) • Henry divorced Catherine for Anne Boleyn

  16. Anne Boleyn • Once Henry’s mistress, becomes Queen when Henry announces divorce from Catherine • Miscarries many children • Has one healthy baby girl • Daughter—Elizabeth • Henry orders Anne’s execution for adultry, or cheating on him

  17. Elizabeth I • Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn • After Mary I (“Bloody Mary”) tries to re-establish Catholicism in England, Elizabeth I tries to reconcile (“bring together”) Catholics and Protestants • Establishes the Anglican Church which mixed Catholic and Protestant theology and ritual • Results in some religious tolerance in England