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International Organizations

International Organizations

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International Organizations

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  1. International Organizations Trade & Economic Interdependence -- The WTO, NAFTA & EU Cont’d March 27th, 2003

  2. NAFTA – Trade Plus • similar to principles enshrined under WTO plus... • investor protection • Chpt.11 • cross-border mobility • environment and labour side agreements

  3. European Union (EU) – Economic & Political Integration • expansion – deepening and broadening integration • European Coal and Steel Community, 1951 • six countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands) • European Economic Community (EEC), 1957 • negative integration – absence of restrictions on movement of workers, goods, services • Denmark, Ireland and UK admitted, 1972 • European Union, 1993 • positive integration – actively fostering integration • Maastricht Treaty, 1992 • Amsterdam Treaty, 1997 • 15 members currently • Greece (1986), Spain (1986), Portugal (1986), Austria (1995), Finland (1995), Sweden (1995) • 10 candidate countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey)

  4. European Union (EU) – Institutions • legislative – shared legislative powers • Council of the European Union • ministers and heads of state of member countries • European Parliament • direct election • executive – European Commission • President and commissioners appointed by member states • confirmed by European Parliament • judiciary – Court of Justice

  5. European Union (EU) – Economic Integration • single market • free movement of people, capital (investment), goods and services • common labour market • Schengen Agreement, 1985 • customs union • all good entering EU face the same tariffs (regardless of country of entry) and then can be moved within EU without restriction • monetary union • the Euro • comes into existence January, 1999 • banknotes and coins in circulation, January 2002 • national banknotes and coins withdrawn from use (February 2002)

  6. European Union (EU) – Political Integration • political integration • common political institutions • e.g. European Parliament • common European citizenship • freedom of movements • fundamental rights • civil and political rights • common social citizenship (limited) • access to social programs in other countries • common currency • money traditionally symbol of sovereignty • requires integrated monetary policy

  7. Implications for Domestic Democratic Systems • increasingly limits domestic policy latitude • to what degree do democratically elected governments have the right to cede sovereignty in international agreements • to what degree can they make decisions that are binding on future governments? • questions regarding citizen control and involvement in discussion over terms of trade • e.g. WTO and the “Battle in Seattle” • what is the required level of citizen engagement? • is involvement of democratically elected governments enough?

  8. Main Points! • range of options for integration • range of options for economic integration • negative integration • removing barriers • trade (WTO & GATT) • trade plus (NAFTA) • positive integration • actively fostering integration • common market (EU) • political integration • is economic integration combined with political integration • EU • each set of options raises important questions about democracy

  9. International Organizations Security -- The United Nation

  10. Arenas of Interdependence: Military Security • States seek to protect themselves, expand their realm of influence • power determined by military capability • Pre-WW2: multipolar world • Post-WW2: bipolar world (US, USSR) • Cold War relations: deterrence, MAD • Now: unipolar (US) +nuclear powers +rogue states? • weaponry has global range, US technologically superior • US unilateralism

  11. Managing Interdependence -- The United Nations • establishment • precursor – League of Nations (1919) • established 1945 • primary objective – peace and security • preamble of the UN Charter • “We the peoples of the United Nations are determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind.”

  12. The United Nations • multiple areas of focus • security (UN Security Council) • economic development (UN Development Program) • health (World Health Organization) • human rights (Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights) • refugees (Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees) • women (UN Development Fund for Women) • children (UN Children’s Fund)

  13. The United Nations • differences with “government” • no direct relationship with people of member countries • not directly elected by the people or accountable to them • have no ability to tax or raise revenues • have no independent military • no way to enforce its decisions • result? • can only undertake activities that its members agree to and only to the extent that they provide the resources to do so • only wields influence to the degree that members accept its legitimacy

  14. The United Nations – Security Council • 15 members • 5 permanent • US, Great Britain, France, Russia, China • each holds veto power • 10 rotating members elected from UN General Assembly • two year terms • Germany, Guinea, Mexico, Pakistan, Spain, Syrian Arab Republic, Angola, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Chile • decisions on substantial matters • requires nine votes • votes of all five permanent nations

  15. UN Security Council & the Iraq Situation • challenge for Security Council – avoid irrelevance • balance between... • rubber-stamping US foreign policy goals • obstructing US foreign policy goals (forcing US to act unilaterally) • Resolution 687 • Iraq shall unconditionally accept removal of weapons of mass destruction, ballistic missiles, and related production facilities • provides for establishment of a system of ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq’s compliance • Resolution 1441 • finds Iraq in material breach of SC Res687 • provides “final opportunity” to comply with disarmament obligations • Security Council to convene if Iraq fails to comply • warns that Iraq faces “serious consequences”

  16. UN Security Council & the Iraq Situation • proposed resolution • US, UK, Spain • “...Iraq has failed to take the final opportunity afforded to it in resolution 1441.” • memorandum • France, Germany, Russia • conditions for using force against Iraq have not been fulfilled • calls for “reinforced inspections”

  17. UN Security Council & the Iraq Situation • US, UK and Spain rescind proposed resolution on March 17th • Why? • would not pass • France vows to veto • also unclear if support sufficient to pass even in absence of French veto • if the resolution is defeated, use of force would be clearly contrary to the wishes of UN Security Council • US argues that use of force legal under Resolution 687 • 48 hour warning issued Monday, March 17th • first missiles launched March 19th

  18. UN Security Council & the Iraq Situation • implications for UN Security Council • US clearly signaled its belief that the Security Council has failed its responsibility • challenge for Security Council – avoid irrelevance • balance between... • rubber-stamping US foreign policy goals • obstructing US foreign policy goals (forcing US to act unilaterally) • UN Security Council will be irrelevant to future US military action unless reformed

  19. UN Security Council Members (Freedom House Freedom Rating) • Angola – Not Free (6/5) • Bulgaria – Free (1/2) • Cameroon – Not Free (6/6) • Chile – Free (2/1) • China – Not Free (7/6) • France – Free (1/1) • Germany – Free (1/1) • Guinea – Not Free (6/5) • Mexico – Free (2/2) • Pakistan – Not Free (6/5) • Russia – Partly Free (5/5) • Spain – Free (1/1) • Syria – Not Free (7/7) • among top 9 worst rated countries in the world • UK – Free (1/1) • US – Free (1/1)