Terms to Know • NGO: A global non-government organization. Usually includes humanitarian, medical, scientific, and sporting organizations What are some examples? • Collective Security: The concept that member states within an organization will provide military support and cooperation in the event of an attack on any other member state
Early International Organizations • Arose in the early 19th century • Made possible by new technologies for travel and communication • League of Nations: - Founded in 1919 as apart of the Treaty of Versailles. - Used the idea of collective security. At one point, the league had 57 members. -Based in Switzerland. The league was meant to keep world peace. - It would vote on decisions and the votes needed to be unanimous in order to be processed. -The United States was not part of the league, and Russia and Germany were originally forbidden to join. - This League failed to prevent WWII.
Why? • With the information you have, discuss some of the reasons the League of Nations might have failed?
The United Nations • Commonly referred to as the U.N • Came into existence October 24, 1945 • 51 Original members had all met in San Francisco to draft the Charter of the United NationsIts purpose is to: • Maintain international peace and security • Develop friendly relations among nations • Solve international problems • Promote respect for human rights And the Fundamental Norm… All members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations
The UN’s 6 Main Organs • The General Assembly • The Security council • The Secretariat • The Economic and Social council • The Trustee council • The International court of Justice • The UN headquarters is based in New York, however the International court of Justice can be found in The Hague, Neatherlands.
The General Assembly • The central body in which each member state is represented and has one vote • “Town Hall Meeting of the World” • Can only adopt resolutions • It is the closest thing to a world parliament • It is a norm generating institution • Six official languages are spoken at the UN: Arabic, English, Chinese, French, Russian, and Spanish
The Security Council • The council is meant to maintain international peace and security, and is thus the most powerful organ of the UN. • The security council has the power to make decisions that are legally binding under the UN Charter. Council decisions are supported by a system of sanctions for enforcing compliance • The security council has 15 members. The victors of WWII are the five permanent members (China, France, Russia, the UK, and the U.S.A) • 10 non-permanent members are elected every 2 years by the General Assembly • Substantive matters, such as the use of force, must include votes by the five permanent members – these members may also VETO, even if there is a majority of affirmative votes • E.G, In 1990, the UN took action after Iraq invaded Kuwait in the first Gulf-War • The UN does have control of its own “army,” Blue Beret which is actually peacekeepers; made up of member states
The Secretariat • Carries out the diverse day-to-day work of the UN and administers its programs and policies • Headed by the Secretary General, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five year, renewable term. • Work includes administration of peace keeping duties, surveys of economic and social trends and problems, preparation of studies on human rights and sustainable development, etc. • Has a staff of about 8,900 drawn from some 170 countries. • Must take an oath not to receive of seek instructions from any government or authority
The Economic and Social Council • ECOSOC • Coordinates economic and social work • Consults with any NGO on many issues • UNICEF reports to the UN • 54 members elected by the General Assembly for 3 year terms. • Seats allocated based on geography
The Trusteeship Council • When the UN was establish, 1/3 of the worlds population lived in non-self-governing territories • Established to administer colonial trust territories that had been under the mandate of the League of Nations • Promote advancements in these territories and move towards independence and self government • Was suspended in 1994, when all of the territories had gained independence • The future? Perhaps space, oceans, atmosphere (recommended by secretary-general)
International Court of Justice • 15 judges, elected to a 9 year term by GA and SC. • May not include more than one judge of any nationality • Settles legal disputes and gives opinion on legal questions referred to by other international agencies • Jurisdiction based on consent of parties in dispute, and if they fail to comply, opposing party may call on UN to take action • Cases from territorial sovereignty t maritime boundaries, human rights to nuclear weapons
UN Criticisms • Reactive and not proactive • So much political manoeuvring • Permanent membership in Security Council reflects post WWII era and not modern society • Should Security council have Veto’s? • Too much power? What do you think?