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International Organizations

International Organizations

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International Organizations

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  1. International Organizations Security -- The United Nations February 5th --2004

  2. Managing Interdependence -- The United Nations • establishment • precursor – League of Nations (1919) • established 1945 • primary objective – peace and security • preamble of the UN Charter

  3. WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED... • to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and • to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and • to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and • to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, AND FOR THESE ENDS... • to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and • to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and • to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and • to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS.

  4. The United Nations – What is It? • Chpt.1, Article 2, 1: The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members. • organization of voluntary member countries • "Membership in the United Nations is open to all peace-loving states which accept the obligations of the Charter and, in the judgement of the Organization, are willing and able to carry out these obligations.” • 51 countries in 1945 • including US and Iraq! • 191 countries in 2003 • including US and Iraq! • based on the “sovereign equality” of each of its member

  5. The United Nations – Aims and Functions • primary objective – peace and security • recognition of the interrelated nature of various spheres of interdependence • security dependent upon other aspects (rights, social progress, etc.) • multiple areas of focus • security (UN Security Council) • economic development (UN Development Program) • health (World Health Organization) • human rights (Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights) • refugees (Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees) • women (UN Development Fund for Women) • children (UN Children’s Fund)

  6. The UN Security Council • powers and functions • Chpt.5, Article 24, 1: ...its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf. • Chpt.7, Article 43, 1: All Members of the United Nations...undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call...armed forces...necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security. • main difference with former League of Nations

  7. The UN Security Council • organizational structure • 15 members • 5 permanent • US, Great Britain, France, Russia, China • each holds veto power • 10 rotating members elected from UN General Assembly • two year terms • Chile, Germany, Pakistan, Philippines, Romania, Spain, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Brazil • decisions on substantial matters • requires nine votes • votes of all five permanent nations

  8. The United Nations – What is It? • is it a world government? • no direct relationship with people of member countries • not directly elected by the people or accountable to them • link between “the people” and the UN in many cases is through non-democratic governments • has no ability to tax or raise revenues • dues on each member country based on country’s share of the world economy • 29% of countries not paying dues in full or on time • largest share (38%) of unpaid dues attributed to US (UN Wepbage) • however, US pays highest dues (22% of UN budget) • has no independent military • no way to independently enforce its decisions

  9. The United Nations – What is It? • result? • can only undertake activities that its members agree to and only to the extent that they provide the resources to do so • especially dependent on those that provide the most resources • only wields influence to the degree that membership broadly or individual members of specific importance (e.g. US) accept its legitimacy

  10. The UN and the Iraq Situation: An Illustration

  11. UN Security Council & the Iraq Situation • Resolution 687 (1991) • Iraq shall unconditionally accept removal of weapons of mass destruction, ballistic missiles, and related production facilities • provides for establishment of a system of ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq’s compliance • Resolution 1441 (November 2002) • finds Iraq in material breach of SC Res687 • provides “final opportunity” to comply with disarmament obligations • Security Council to convene if Iraq fails to comply • warns that Iraq faces “serious consequences”

  12. UN Security Council & the Iraq Situation • proposed resolution • US, UK, Spain • “...Iraq has failed to take the final opportunity afforded to it in resolution 1441.” • memorandum opposing use of force • France, Germany, Russia • conditions for using force against Iraq have not been fulfilled • calls for “reinforced inspections”

  13. UN Security Council & the Iraq Situation • US, UK and Spain rescind proposed resolution on March 17th • Why? • would not pass • France vows to veto • also unclear if support sufficient to pass even in absence of French veto • if the resolution is defeated, use of force would be clearly contrary to the wishes of UN Security Council • US argues that use of force legal under Resolution 687 • 48 hour warning issued Monday, March 17th • first missiles launched March 19th

  14. The UN Charter and the Iraq Situation • Chpt.1, Article 2, 4: All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state... • cannot base UN-sanctioned military action on the basis of human rights violations against domestic population or lack of domestic democratic institutions

  15. UN Security Council Members (Freedom House Freedom Rating) • Angola – Not Free • Bulgaria – Free • Cameroon – Not Free • Chile – Free • China – Not Free • France – Free • Germany – Free • Guinea – Not Free • Mexico – Free • Pakistan – Not Free • Russia – Partly Free • Spain – Free • Syria – Not Free • among top 9 worst rated countries in the world • UK – Free • US – Free

  16. The UN Charter and the Iraq Situation • Chpt.5, Article 25: The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter. • however, President Bush publicly stated that the UN Security Council had “failed to do its duty” – a rejection of Article 25

  17. The UN Charter and the Iraq Situation • Chpt.7, Article 39: The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be maintain or restore international peace and security. • Article 51: Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations... • presents a serious challenge to new US policy of preemption

  18. UN Security Council & the Iraq Situation • serious challenge to the UN • argument that Security Council has to be reformed if the UN is not to become irrelevant in US foreign policy • emphasizes that the UN cannot enforce its decisions without the support of its members • and, most importantly, the US! • the denouement •