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International Organizations

International Organizations

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International Organizations

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  1. International Organizations IS 101

  2. United Nations • An international organization • Founded in 1945 (after WWII) • Originally 51 countries – now about 193 • Original mandate – peace and security, friendly relations amongst nations • Better living standards and human rights • Headquarters in New York

  3. 4 main purposes of the UN • Peace throughout the world • Development friendly relations among nations • Help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, conquer hunger, disease, illiteracy and encourage respect for each others rights and freedoms • To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals

  4. Committees of the UN • Disarmament and international security • Economic and Financial • Social Humanitarianism and Culture • Special political and de-colonization • Administrative and Budgetary • Legal

  5. Critique of the UN • Some say that it was a good idea in it’s time but has now lost credibility and should be abolished

  6. Security Council of the UN • 5 permanent members: China, France, Russia, UK and US • 10 non-permanent members with 2 year term: currently Bosnia, Herzegovina, Brazil, Columbia, Gabon, Germany, India, Lebanon, Nigeria, Portugal and South Africa • Each council member has one vote – must have 9 to proceed, including the votes of all 5 permanent members • President is appointed in alphabetical order for a term of one month (from amongst members)

  7. Meetings can be requested by any member of the Security Council and meetings must be held at least every 14 days

  8. Function is to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the UN • Investigate any dispute or situation that might lead to international friction • To recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement • To formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments

  9. To determine the existence of a threat to the peace or the act of aggression and recommend the action to be taken • To call on members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression • To take military action against an aggressor • To recommend the admission of new members • To exercise the trusteeship function of the UN in strategic areas

  10. To recommend the Secretary General appointment and to elect the judges of the International Court of Justice

  11. World Bank • Founded in 1944 • Made of 2 unique development institutions (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Int. Dev. Assoc.) • owned by 187 member countries • Provide to the countries with the most need and where it will have greatest impact and promote growth (particularly in the Arab world) • Also help middle income countries • Provided 46.9B for 303 projects in developing countries

  12. Managment • Under the leadership of president, management and senior staff and the vice presidents in charge of regions, sectors, networks and functions

  13. Mission Statement of WB • To help developing countries and their people reach their goals by working with our partners to alleviate poverty. • Address global challenges in ways that advance an inclusive and sustainable globalization • Overcome poverty, enhance growth with care for the environment and create individual opportunity and hope

  14. Critique of WB • With less aid, the economies of the developing countries were growing – when the WB provides aid it stunts growth • WB has lent billions to dictators • Infrastructure projects often have negative social and environmental impacts for local communities • Partnership with private sector may undermine the role of the state as the primary provider of goods and services • Run by a small group of dominant countries

  15. International Monetary Fund • An intergovernmental organization that promotes economic cooperation around the world • Has 187 member countries • Specialized agency of UN with it’s own charter • Main focus is policies that have an impact on exchange rates and balance of payments • Aim is High rates of employment and low inflation • Address global challenges in ways that advance an inclusive and sustainable globalization

  16. Focus on macro economic and financial policies • Balance payments and establish a “real” economy in developing countries (capitalism) • Financial sector development • Analyze impact of policies and provide forum for international cooperation on global economic and financial problems

  17. Governance of IMF • Run by a board on behalf of member countries

  18. Critique of IMF • Managing director (Dominique Strauss-Kahn) accused of sexual assault and attempted rape of a chamber maid in a New York hotel • During the Cold War, they supported a lot of anti-communist dictatorships (Ethiopia, Pakistan, Southern Africa, Brazil…) • Policies are not beneficial to developing countries • Environmental impacts • Food distribution policies don’t work in impoverished societies

  19. G8/G20 • G8 started in response to the oil crisis of the 1970s • Canada (1976), EU, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia (1997), the UK and the US • Meet annually – Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors • G20 started in 1999 in response to financial crisis – key emergent countries needed to have a say • G8 represented 15% of global population, 65% of GDP and 2/3s of all international trade

  20. G20 represents 90% of international trade • No official language • Consultative process, not an international organization • No authority to take action – only consultative • Has influence rather than direct action

  21. G20 countries • Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, EU, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Republic of Korea, Turkey, UK and US • Managing director of IMF, president of WB, Chairs of International Monetary and Finance Committee and Development Committee of IMF and WB • Represent 90% of GDP, 80% of world trade and 2/3 of population

  22. Mandate • Help support growth and development

  23. Critique of g8/g20 • Cost of meetings and lack of authority • Very nebulous organization • Some believe that it promotes war and the terrorocracy of the west • Some believe that it’s ineffective and perpetuates status quo

  24. International Court of Justice • Part of the UN – stems from Nuremburg trials in 1946 • Located in the Hague (Netherlands) in the Peace Palace • Only UN sanctioned organization that’s not in New York • Core is made of 15 judges • Official languages are French and English • Does not with international crime (war criminals) – that International Criminal Court

  25. Mission Statement • The courts role is to settle in accordance with international law legal disputes submitted to it by states and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized UN organs and specialized agencies.

  26. Governance • Current president is from Japan, vp from Slovakia • Elected by members of the court every 3 years by secret ballot • All 15 judges must be from different countries • 3 year term for judges

  27. Cases • UK vs. Albania – the Corfu Channel (1947) • Current case is between Cambodia and Thailand – a border dispute involving a temple • Often deals with border disputes

  28. Critique • No real power • Security Council can veto any decision made by the court