Chapter 7. Managerial Overview: Database Management. Outline. 1. Foundation Data Concepts 2. The Database Management Approach 3. Use of Database Software in the Business Environment 4. Types of Databases 5. Data Resource Management. Foundation Data Concepts.
1. Foundation Data Concepts
2. The Database Management Approach
3. Use of Database Software in the Business
4. Types of Databases
5. Data Resource Management
The Database Management Approach consolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by many different application programs.
This Approach Involves Three Basic Activities:
1. Updating and Maintaining Common Databases
2. Sharing the Data in Common Databases
3. Providing an Inquiry/Response and Reporting Capability
A software package that uses this approach is the Database Management System(DBMS), which serves as a software interface between users and databases.
The Four Major Uses of a DBMS Package are:
1. Database Development - Microsoft Access which allow end users to easily develop the databases they need.
2. Database Interrogation - Provides a response to questions from a database.
3. Database Maintenance - Updates continually to reflect new business transactions and other events.
4. Application Development - Develop custom application programs.
Benefits of Database Management: Limitations of Database Management:
1. Reduces duplication of data 1. Difficult and expensive to install
2. Easy to obtain information 2. Greater storage required
3. Computer programming is simplified 3. Longer processing time
4. Security can be increased 4. Vulnerable to errors
There are Six Major Types of Databases:
1. Operational Databases - Stores detailed data to support the operations of the entire organization. Ex. Customer database, inventory database.
2. Analytical Databases - Stores data and information extracted from selected operational and external databases.
3. Data Warehouses - Stores data from current and previous years that has been extracted from the various operational databases of an organization.
4. Distributed Databases - Stores copies or parts of databases.
5. External Databases - Stores a wealth of information from commercial online services, available to companies with a fee.
1. What are the advantages to the database management
2. Why is data resource management important to an
Data is a vital organizational resource that
needs to be managed like other important
Most organizations could not survive or
succeed without quality data about their
internal operations and external environment.
1. Facts and figures of potential importance in
running a business.
2. The basis for frequent business decisions by all
types and levels of people within an enterprise.
3. Information when used by people that apply
4. Capable of supporting a business strategy that
leads to a competitive advantage.
6. Specific and its uniqueness must be identified.
e.g. part number, customer number, social security
7. Needs to be coded in a consistent manner for use
in multiple systems.
8. Both static and dynamic and must be managed
9. Often expensive to obtain with a necessary degree
that it can be quickly accessed.
11. In multiple forms with the expanding scope of IT
use by enterprises.
12. Either centralized, decentralized or distributed.
13. Either personal, departmental or enterprise-wide.
14. An organizational resource that has major value
and needs to be protected.
As an employee of BIS Market Research, Inc. you are being assigned as a member of a two person team to assist the Saturn Dealership Group by developing an approach that will help identify good sales prospects to buy an automobile. To meet the needs of the client, you will design a survey questionnaire, build a database and produce a report for the client that provides a list of prospects in priority sequence.
You will also produce a report for BIS Market Research management.
1. Interviewing a Saturn representative.
2. Deciding on the appropriate data needed to accomplish
this assignment is critical to the overall success of the
3. Deciding on an appropriate and efficient coding system
for the data is also an important part of the project. A
poor job in this step will result in poor overall results.
4. Designing a survey form (questionnaire) that a prospect
would be willing to complete that will also serve as the
source document to the create the database.
5. Inputting the data from the survey forms into the database including editing the source document for accuracy and completeness. You should keep a record of documents that you conclude are not valid to be included in the survey report.
6. Determining logical criteria that identifies and prioritizes the better prospects.
7. Producing a final report for the client that lists the better prospects in priority sequence. All the prospects should be included in this final report with the best at the top of the report in descending order.
8. A second report should be prepared for BIS Market Research management highlighting the major learning points from the project. Think of this as a useful document for the next group that will have a similar assignment.
10/26/00 Interview a Saturn Dealership Group representative to help determine information to be collected through the survey and begin to lay out the questionnaire (survey form).
11/2/00 Turn in questionnaire/source document at the beginning of class.
Complete the survey in class using a form provided by the instructor.
5/7/00 Meet in PC Lab in Social Science I, Room 135 between 10:00 and 2:00. (in two groups)
Create a database.
Better understand the specific aspects of the assignment.
Complete the assignment on your own if you do not finish in the scheduled lab.
11/21/00 Submit final project as a team.
Input form design/layout 25%
Input data/editing 5%
Report for client 40%
Prospect priority logic 5%
Report to research company manager 25%
Has corrupt data ever delayed business?
Yes - 70% No - 30%
Is your company data acceptably accurate?
Yes - 31% No - 69%
Are processes in place to check database woes?
Yes - 56% No - 44%
Entry Errors 32%
Incomplete Data 25%
Collection Errors 21%
System Design 15%
Department Managers 35%
IS Manager 32%
Administrative Executive 11%
Quality Manager 4%
Separate files created for a specific application like an employee master file to support the payroll application.
Made up of specific information (fields) necessary to process the payroll.
The master file is updated based on the payroll application processing schedule.
Structured Query Language (SQL) has two components:
Data Definition Language - Used to physically establish record types, fields and structural relationships.
Data Manipulation Language (includes query but any access of data in a relational database is considered a query) - Used to create, read, update and delete records in the database and to navigate between different records and types of records.
1. Provide for efficient storage, update and retrieval of data.
2. Provide high integrity to promote user trust in the data.
3. Be adaptable to and scalable to new and unforeseen
business requirements and applications.
The software manages a database of data definitions, that is, metadata about the structure, data elements and other characteristics of the organization’s database.Data Dictionary Software
Contains a list of all files in the database, the number of records in each file and the names and types of each field.
Does not contain any of the actual data in the database.
Can report the status of any aspect of a firm’s
DBA’s can make changes to definitions.
Active data dictionaries automatically enforce
standard data element definitions meaning end
users must follow the rules of the program’s data
Data Warehouses are an integrated collection
of data extracted from operational, historical,
and external databases, and screened, edited,
and standardized for retrieval and analysis
(data mining), to provide business intelligence
for managerial (empowered employee)
The task of extracting, cleaning and loading information into a data warehouse takes an enormous amount of time and effort.
Estimates are that on average 80% of the effort to build an effective data warehouse goes into this task.
A data warehouse is an integral part of Wal-Mart’s Information Systems strategy that says:
It is no longer good enough to link just internal information systems. You have to integrate them from one end of the business value chain to the other--from suppliers through to customers.
Wal-Mart is also implementing Collaborative Forecasting and Replenishment (CFAR) to coordinate product forecasting.
This produces a better forecast than one done independently.
Both Wal-Mart and its vendors are willing to live with the forecast.
Suppliers gain the ability to better plan capacity and production levels.
Wal-Mart wants to address its 30% stockouts that result in lost business.
The data warehouse also supports this application.
1. Explain the basic concept of data
2. How can data warehouses help a company
to gain a competitive advantage in the
A database is a collection of logically related records
or files. It consolidates many records previously
stored in separate files so that a common pool of
data records serves many applications.
Distributing databases or portions of a database to remote sites where the data are most frequently used is made possible through the use of a network that interconnects the distributed databases.
Operational databases: Store detailed data needed to support the operations of an entire organization.
Analytical databases: Data extracted from selected operational and external databases.
Hypermedia databases: Consisting of a home page and other hyper-linked pages of multimedia or mixed media (text, photographic images, video clips, etc.)
(lessen capacity demands on the network)
1. Systems performance. i.e. access time to data
2. Cost to implement and support the system.
3. Data integrity implications.
Which of these three factors always seems to be a distant third consideration?
If you have a choice as to whether to distribute data or not.
Why distribute data if a single copy will do the job?
Distributed databases can reside on network servers, on the World Wide Web, on corporate intranets, extranets or on other company networks.
1. Why is there a need and a trend for distributed
2. What criteria should be used to decide whether to
distribute a database and which factors usually
receive the highest priority?
In creating a distributed system, where do you put:
The computer nodes?
The telecommunications function?
The network control?
The authority and responsibility?
Static data is much easier to distribute than dynamic data.
Customer ID information
Customer Account status
Geographic distribution does not necessarily mean great distances.
To have a true distributed system (database) there must be a comprehensive, coordinated system that manages the data.
Oracle is a supplier of software for information management. The company develops, manufactures, markets and distributes computer software to manage and grow their business. Its product line includes database, server, application development and decision support tools.
Founded: 1977 by CEO Lawrence J. Ellison
Fortune 500 rank: 195
Headquarters: Redwood City, CA
Employees : 43,800 as of 1999
* Oracle software is utilized by 90% of Fortune 500 companies and government organizations worldwide. It is the 2nd world‘s second largest software company with annual sales more than $9.7 billion
Core Strategy: Giving their customers unprecedented speed and capability in the execution of technology strategies in the advent of the Internet age and B2B e-commerce.
Company Values: Delivered are through the integration of services capability, comprised of Oracle Consulting, Oracle Support Services, and Oracle Education.
Two broad categories:
Oracle 8i : an object-relational database that supports the close integration of objects and complex data types with a relational database engine’s mission-critical infrastructure, including management tools, data integrity, and query capabilities.
* Yahoo selected Oracle as the backbone of its data warehouse because of the speed, scalability, and performance, which made them earn a high recognition by users and advertisers.
1) internet-ready platform
2) internet-enabled business applications.
3) professional services for help in formulating business strategy, as well as in designing, customizing, and implementing e-business solutions.
1. Data definition language.
2. Data query/manipulation language.
3. Data dictionary (an automated or manual
tool about data maintained in the
1. Give three examples of key elements of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software provided by Oracle.
2. Explain two reasons why Oracle gained a competitive edge in the database market within the computer industry.
Assure consistent and uniform control of data across the entire enterprise.
Insure the correct definition of data across the entire enterprise.
Ensure consistent data collection and input.
Define responsibility for data management.
Data Resource Management
Logical Data Elements
Types of Databases
Data Warehouse Hypermedia
Uniform Resource Locator