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BIOTECHNOLOGY –THE ERA OF 21 ST CENTURY. S. Umesha Department of Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570006.

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biotechnology the era of 21 st century

BIOTECHNOLOGY –THE ERA OF 21ST CENTURY

S. Umesha

Department of Biotechnology,

University of Mysore, Mysore 570006

slide2

Biotechnology – Discipline which enables its exponents to convert raw materials to final products, which either the raw materials and/or a stage in the production process involves biological entities.

definitions
Definitions…
  • The application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of material by biological agents to provide goods and services.
  • Integrated use of Biochemistry, Microbiology, Engineering sciences in order to achieve technological application of the capabilities of Microorganisms, cultured tissue cells and parts thereof.
biotechnology
Biotechnology

1st Generation Biotechnology

  • producing wine, beer, cheese, vaccines

2nd Generation Biotechnology

  • conventional breeding, tissue culture techniques

3rd Generation Biotechnology or “Modern Biotechnology

  • recombinant DNA technology, GMO’s, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, Human genome project…
slide14

Biotechnology

In

Agriculture

food problems have haunted mankind since time immemorial
Food problems have haunted mankind since time immemorial
  • Expanding the cultivated area
  • Technological Breakthroughs
feeding the world
Feeding the world…
  • Today 70 % of the people on the planet grow, what they eat.
  • By 2025, half will live in cities and need to be fed through market channels (UN estimate).
  • World food production will have to double on existing land over the next 20 years – to meet population growth.
slide18

Population growth is outstripping food supply. The world population is expected to reach 7 billion within 25 years, over 10 billion in the year 2050, while agricultural production is growing at the slower rate of about 1.8 % annually.

slide19
Immediate implementation of non conventional practices to bridge this deficit like Agri -Biotechnology is the need of the hour across the globe. However,this technology has not penetrated areas where it is most needed like Africa and Asia.
slide20
Many countries are not self-sufficient in food grain production
  • Because – climate, environmental limitations etc.
  • BT may make it possible to customize the genetic make up of crop plants, so that they can grow in exceptionally dry/wet, hot/cold climates.
slide21
Increased crop yield, greater flexibility in growing envt.
  • Less use of chemical pesticides and improved nutritional content make Agri-BT quite literally the future of world’s food supply – THE ERA OF 21ST CENTURY.
  • Therefore there is an urgent need to intensify our development of Agri-BTs.
slide24

Anti-cancer drugs

Transfer of new genes into animal organisms

Culture of plants from single cells

Diagnostics

Crime solving

Tracers

DNA technology

Genetic Engineering

Synthesis of specific DNA probes

Banks of DNA, RNA and proteins

Cloning

Synthesis of new proteins

Mass prodn. of human proteins

Localisation of genetic disorders

Resource bank for rare human chemicals

New types of plants and animals

New antibiotics

New types of food

Gene therapy

Cell

Culture

Monoclonal

Antibodies

Molecular

Biology

Complete map of the human genome

slide28
BT of plants & specific crops, including GE for yield & quality traits, metabolite production, rapid clonal propagation & germplasm conservation.
  • BT is a most powerful tool to further advance the various fields of Agriculture.
  • The potential benefits of BT will not be realized without a continued commitment to basic research.
slide29
Gene transfer to enhance Quality of human life...
  • Gene identification – gene regulation-structure and function of gene products.
new approaches to crop production
New approaches to crop production…
  • US: Agri production has more than doubled, while the amount of land under cultivation has actually declined.
  • Most direct way to use BT to improve crop Agri.

Genetically Engineer plants- ie., alter the base of genetic structure.

  • Although the powerful, the process is not simple.
  • Typically researchers must be able to isolate the gene of interest, insert it in to a plant cell, induce the transformed cell to grow in to an entire plant and then make sure the gene is appropriately expressed.
slide31
Herbicide resistant traits
  • Glyphosate – round up – environmentally safe herbicide (indiscriminately kills crops as well as weeds).
  • Scientists have isolated a glyphosate resistant gene and successfully transferred it in to cotton, soybean, tobacco & tomatoes.
  • Gene was derived from Solmonella typhimurium.
genetic engineering for crop protection
Genetic engineering for Crop Protection…
  • Protection of crops from pests, insects, viruses, bacteria, nematodes, fungi & weeds.
  • Chemical pesticides, herbicides are not selective enough to affect only harmful organisms.
  • More refined BT can be used (Bt cotton)
  • New approaches to Animal Agriculture..
  • Animal breeding, Fish farming.
ge for transgenic crops
GE for Transgenic crops…
  • Transgenic varieties – more productive, precise…
  • Overcomes the limitations of traditional breeding
  • Allows scientists to use new traits from many kinds of plants and other living things.
basic steps in creating a transgenics
Basic steps in creating a transgenics..
  • Isolate the gene of interest..
  • Vector is chosen, to carry in to the plant’s cell
  • Gene is clipped & loaded on to vector (genetic gun)
  • Once the gene has been delivered in to cell, travels in to the chromosome strand.
  • New gene becomes part of the plant’s recipe book.
slide35

Generating high-yielding varieties by genetic manipulation of plant architecture…………...

  • The major factor that contributed to the success of the green revolution was the introduction of high-yielding semi-dwarf varieties of wheat and rice, in combination with the application of large amounts of nitrogen fertilizer.

DR. M. S. Swaminathan

World Food Prize - 2003

slide36

Generating high-yielding varieties by genetic

manipulation of plant architecture…………...

  • Several parameters such as plant height, tiller number, photosynthesis, photoperiod insensitivity and resistance to pests and diseases are associated with increase in yield.
  • Transgene Application Host plant
  • OsGA3ox2 Semi dwarf Rice
  • OsGA3ox2, d18 Flower/grain development Arabidopsis
  • MOC1 Tillering Rice
  • BR I1 Erect leaf Barley
  • OsBRI1 Erect leaf Rice
  • OsTB1Tillering Rice
bt crops protect plants against specific insect pests
Bt crops protect plants against specific insect pests…
  • A unique feature of the insect-disease-causing organism. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), - its production of crystal-like proteins that selectively kill specific groups of insects.
  • When insect eats these cry proteins, its own digestive enzymes activate the toxin form of the protein.
  • Cry proteins bind to specific receptors on the intestinal walls and rupture the midgut cells.
current crops with biotech traits
Current Crops with Biotech Traits

Commercial ProductsBenefits to Growers / Consumers

  • Herbicide Tolerance - Lower grower cost

(corn, soy, cotton, canola) - Reduced herbicide residues

- Enables no-till

- Simplicity / flexibility

  • Insect/Corn Borer Resistance - Lower grower costs

(corn, cotton, potato) - Reduced pesticide usage - Decreased molds

- Higher yields

- Simplicity

current crops with biotech traits1
Current Crops with Biotech Traits
  • Virus Resistance - Lower cost

(potato, papaya) - Higher quality foods

- Less acres used

  • Delayed Ripening - Higher quality food products - Longer shelf-life

Commercial ProductsBenefits to Growers / Consumers

biotech benefits and risks
Biotech Benefits and Risks
  • Decreasing reliance on pesticides
  • Insect resistance management
  • Gene flow and out crossing
  • Non-target organisms
  • Human, wildlife and environmental health
  • Preserving genetic diversity in plants and animals
  • Economic impacts
biotech foods and health
Biotech Foods and Health
  • Enhanced protein and essential nutrients prevent disease
    • Vitamin A to prevent childhood blindness
    • Increased calories and nutrients to prevent malnutrition
  • Increasing food availability by reducing spoilage

Golden rice

healthier foods
Healthier Foods
  • Added Nutrients
    • Wheat
    • Rice
  • Reducing Natural Food Toxins
fighting hunger
Fighting Hunger
  • Improving yields of food staples
  • Controlling insects
  • Controlling crop diseases
    • Bananas
    • Cassava
    • Sweet potato virus
  • Greater salt tolerance
food security
Food Security
  • Increasing crop productivity to meet growing global food needs
  • Increasing crop productivity of staple foods rich in protein and calories
  • Increasing access to a healthy, diverse diet
why so much potential
Why so much potential?
  • Genetic engineering provides a greater range of possibilities for transferring desired traits into organisms.
the potential is biological novelty
The potential is biological novelty
  • A greater diversity of organisms may be modified
  • The quantity and quality of traits are limited by the identification of useful genes and are not constrained by existing variation among interbreeding relatives
agri bt products on the market
Agri BT products on the market…

Global area under transgenic crops is seen growing.

The only transgenic crop approved in India for commercial cultivation is Bt cotton.

Interestingly, the area under Bt cotton in 2005 was only 500,000 hectares out of over 9 million hectares under total cotton crop.

scopes of gm crops
Scopes of GM crops…
  • Enzymes & metabolites
  • Disease resistance
  • Increased Shelf life – fruits & vegetables
  • Antifungal proteins
  • Virus resistance
  • Herbicide tolerance
  • Insect tolerance
slide57
Seed storage proteins
  • Human proteins, Enzymes, Antibiotics
  • Vaccines
  • Metal resistance in plants
  • Stress tolerance
  • Alteration of oil composition.
slide58

Winners and losers as a consequence of agri biotechnology in global food system

At the product level, the evidence of producer returns is mixed. Recent studies on Bt corn, Bt cotton, Roundup Ready soybeans and herbicide tolerant canola show that gross returns can be variable, depending critically on weed or insect infestation rates

A longitudinal assessment of herbicide tolerant canola concluded that although the gross annual returns were high, the gross investment by the industry was only recovered in the seventh year of adoption and, even then, industry had not recovered the value of the pre-existing chemical markets that were cannibalized by the new technology.

list of transgenics
Asparagus

Daucus carota

Gossypium

Zea mays

Gerbera

Cucumis melo

Carica popaya

Arachis hypogea

Solanum tuberosum

Oryza sativa

Glycine max

Beta vulgaris

Triricum

List of transgenics…
slide60

The way ahead ………….

The new technology has great potential to radically transform the agri-food sector, if the economics and institutions are up to the challenge.

Public institutions will also be vital in the development of a receptive market for biotechnologies and GM agri-food products in developing countries

As majority owner and key beneficiary of the technology, industry has the most to gain and lose from a market failure.

So far the firms in the sector have been very effective in marketing their technology to producers but have almost completely failed to create a positive or accepting consumer market.

In short, the prospects for a better bioengineered world will not be determined by the science but by the capacity for public and private institutions to adapt, adopt and use the new technology in commercially and socially beneficial ways.

slide62

“There can be no peace until people have enough to eat… investments in agricultural research today can cultivate peace tomorrow… Biotechnology is not the enemy, Partner in progress.”

agricultural biotechnology
Agricultural Biotechnology

Modern Biotechnology – GM products

  • is not a silver bullet or a quick fix to solve the world’s poverty and food security problems
  • when combined with conventional approaches, it can go a long way in the improvement of crop productivity
  • does require a new way of thinking, organization and communication