ART IN 19TH CENTURY Clara Rodríguez Núñez
ART IN 19TH CENTURY • FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON: NEOCLASSICISM (David) • LIBERALISM AND NATIONALISM: ROMANTICISM (Delacroix) • WORKERS MOVEMENT: REALISM (Courbet) • INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: NEW ARCHITECTURE (Eiffel) • ART AFTER THE PHOTOGRAPHY: IMPRESSIONISM AND POSTIMPRESSIONISM (Monet) (Van Gogh/Cezanne/Gauguin
NEOCLASSICISM • Subject matter: "history" paintings most important (especially subjects from Greek or Roman history or mythology) • Themes: social, moral, ethical themesor classical or patriotic themes urban themes • Theory of art: didactic: art is to teach • General style: clear, orderly, rational • Composition: figures parallel to picture plane • Space: clearly defined space: box-like or bas relief • Figures: idealized, generalized, statue-like • Color: somber, flat • Application of paint: linear, careful application
ROMANTICISM • Subject matter: various subject matters; if "historical" subjects, the Bible was the source • Themes: sensuous themesor religious themes, interest in nature • Theory of art: art is to move, inspire • General style: dynamic, restless, emotional, moody • Composition: use of diagonal; dynamic • Space: vast, unlimited; ambiguous • Figures: expressive, individualistic • Color: vivid, intense • Application of paint: painterly
David's The Death of Socrates, 1787. • Delacroix's The Death of Sardanapalus, 1827
REALISM • Subject matter: life as it is • Themes:ordinary places and people. • Theory of art:to report and describe reality as accurately and honestly as possible; to denounce the workers class situation. • Space: in the open air • Figures: realistic, individualistic
NEW ARCHITECTURE • New materials • Iron • Concrete • Buildings: • Towers • Bridges • Warehouses
BEFORE IMPRESSIONISM • Subject matter: • portraits of rich or famous people. • religious themes. • historical themes • Style in paintings: realism. • Artists painted on commission • Lighting in portraits was mostly indoors. • Colors and shadows. There were lots of browns and yellows
AFTER IMPRESSIONISM • Subject matter: • everyday people doing everyday activities • landscapes • color • Style in paintings: Impressionism (their impression of the subject) • Artists painted for enjoyment • Lighting was mostly outdoors. • Small brushstrokes of color next to each other that were blended by the viewer's eye
Comparison of Van Gogh's Early Paintings with those after being influenced by Impressionism
Before: • · The Old Church at Nuenen is painted in dark mudding colors (as was standard for Gogh's Early Paintings) · • The painting is a literal representation of the church, sky and surroundings. · • The use of color is very minimal. • The dark church and light sky keep the eye focused on the building.
After: • · The Church at Auvers is painted in the bright colors of the impressionist and post impressionists · • The free forming lines cause the subject (the church) to become wavy and appear to be bending or melting. · • The vivid color schemes move the onlookers eyes around the painting.