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Evangelizing Muslims

Evangelizing Muslims

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Evangelizing Muslims

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  1. Evangelizing Muslims Apologetics

  2. The Grand Mosque (in Mecca) • World’s largest • Site of the Ka’aba • Thought to be directly beneath the worship place of angels • Can accommodate 4 million worshippers during Hajj

  3. The Ka’aba in Mecca Houses the Black Stone, thought to have been fallen from heaven and handed down by Adam and Eve

  4. POLEMICS Asking disturbing questions in order to put your opponent on the defensive Force the onus on them, not on us “The best defense is a good offense” Islam has a lot more than Christianity to answer for Too few have done it, we need to use it.

  5. HAS THE QUR’AN BEEN CORRUPTED? • Manuscript evidence (Ma’il, Kufic mss., dates, etc…) • Source Problems (Suras 5:31-32 = Cain & Abel; 21:51-71 = Abraham; 27:14-44 = Solomon & Sheba) • Collation Problems • Contradictions and Errors in the Qur’an • What then is the true ‘Word of God’?

  6. Polygamy:S 4:3 1 husband/ 4 wives and what right hand possesses (slaves/concubines) Inheritance: S 4:11”inheritance to the male, equal to that of two females.” Wife Beating: S 4:34, men may beat wives Testimony: S 2:282, Bukhar1:301 Muhammad replied, “Is not the testimony of a woman equivalent to half the testimony of a man? Tilth: S 2:223“Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth as ye will” Slaves/Concubines: S 33:50 “We have made lawful unto thee whom you have paid dowries (contract), those whom thy right had possesses (Slaves) of those whom Allah hath given thee as spoils of war... Polygamy...Genesis 2:24, Mt. 19:5, 1 Tim 3:2, perfect marriage relationship between 1 man and 1 woman. Love one’s wife: 1 Pet. 3:7, Col. 3:19 “husbands must love your wives & NEVER treat them harshly.” Testimony: Matthew 28:9 First witnesses of Christ’s resurrection were women Equality:Galations 3:28 “all believers are equal in Christ” -Hebrews 4:14-16 “both can approach God directly. -1 Peter 3:7 “you are equal together in the grace of life.” -1 Corinthians 7:1-40, Their bodies belong to each other. Not one is above the other. -Eph 5:25As Christ gave his life for the church, so a husband should do for his wife Slavery: Gal. 3:28 ‘There is neither slave nor free...male nor female...all one in Jesus Christ (Philemon 16 – Slave -> brother) WOMEN IN ISLAM VS. CHRISTIANITY

  7. IS MUHAMMAD A TRUE PROPHET? Four Criteria for Prophethood in the Bible: • Is he in Isaac's race? • Does his messageconform to previous revelation? • Are his predictions verifiable (miracle/prophecy)? • Does he use God’s personal name?: Adonai (descriptive) = 340 times Elohim (generic) = 2,000 times Yahweh (personal) = 6,823 times • -Does Muhammad fulfil any of these criteria…Thus, is he a true prophet? • -The veneration for Muhammad today…do we have the alternative in Jesus?

  8. ISN’T JESUS SUPERIOR TO MUHAMMAD IN THE QUR’AN? • Sura 19:20 = Jesus is born of a virgin, Muhammmad is born naturally • Sura 4:36 = Jesus can talk from the cradle, while Muhammad cannot • Sura 4:39 = Jesus heals the sick, gives sight to the blind, resuscitates the dead, and creates out of nothing, while Muhammad can do none of these. • Sura 19:19 = Jesus is the only ‘righteous one’, the sinless one, while Muhammad has to ask forgiveness for his sins (Sura 48:2)

  9. IS ALLAH THE REAL GOD? • Is it not just a generic name? • Is it not merely a pagan Arab name? • Hubal (Abd-Allah), Al-Lat, Al-Manat, Al-Uza (Sura 53:19-21) • Where is that name found in the Bible? • What are we to do with ‘those who come in the name of other gods’ (Deut.18:18-22) • Can Allah enter ‘Time and Space’?

  10. A Comparison of the two ‘Khilafahs:’The Kingdom of God is important for both Muslims and Christians Islamic Khilafa • -identified as a visible, political, geographical state • -melds the sacred with the Secular • -based on 7th c. Arab rules and regulations • -modeled on 7th C., fixed, Arabic culture • -focus is here (theocratic state) • -established by force • -imposed on the unwilling • -survives & thrives on power • -created & maintained by man Christian Khilafa • -identified as an invisible, personal relational entity • -separates the sacred from the Secular • -based on universal principles • -modeled on a contextual, fluid, universal, transcending culture • -focus is there (sojourners) • -established by choice • -imposed on no-one (voluntary) • -survives & thrives on weakness • -created & maintained by God

  11. WHICH IS MORE RELEVANT FOR TODAY, CHRISTIANITY OR ISLAM? • Violence and Peace in both Christianity and Islam • Women’s Issues in both Christianity and Islam (S.4:3,11,34; 2:223, 282) • The Freedoms of the Christian West vs. the Muslim East, etc… (i.e., UDHR - Human Rights) • Why do so many people want to emigrateto the West, where there is at least a ‘Christian Memory,’ than to Islamic Countries?

  12. Jihad • “The more common interpretation, and that of the overwhelming majority of the classical jurists and commentators , presents jihad as armed struggle for Islam against infidels and apostates.” (Bernard Lewis, professor of Near Eastern Studies, Princeton University) • This is known as the Lesser Jihad • The word means ‘striving’ or ‘struggle’ • Often used in the sense of personal striving in the path of God. • The Greater Jihad • According to Islamic law there are two domains • Dar al-Islam, the house of Islam • Dar al-Harb, the house of War

  13. Jihad and Non-Muslims • (9:5) “Fight and slay the pagans wherever you find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem.” • (9:29) “Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Prophet, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.”

  14. Jihad and Non-Muslims • (47:4-7) “When you meet unbelievers, smite their necks, then, when you have made wide slaughter among them, tie fast the bonds; then set them free, either by grace or ransom, till the war lays down its loads…And those who are slain in the way of God, He will not send their works astray. He will guide them, and dispose their minds aright, and He will admit them to Paradise, that He has made known to them.”

  15. Muhammad’s prophecies came in two periods: Meccan, and Medinan Allah alters what was once declared lawful into unlawful, and vice versa From the Qur’an 2:106 16:101 2:219 and 5:90 Naskh (Abrogation)

  16. From the Qur’an • 16:106 • 3:28 • 9:3 • 2:225 • 3:54 (makara means deceit) • From the Hadith • Bukhari (49:857) • Bukhari (84:64-65) • Bukhari (50:369) Taqiyya • Falsehoods told to prevent the denigration of Islam, to protect oneself, or to promote the cause of Islam are sanctioned in the Qur'an and Hadith, including lying under oath in testimony before a court, and deceiving by making distorted statements to the media. A Muslim is even permitted to deny or denounce his faith if, in so doing, he protects or furthers the interests of Islam, so long as he remains faithful to Islam in his heart.

  17. Shariah Law • The code of conduct or religiouslaw of Islam. • Shariah is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Qur'an, and the example set by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad in the Hadith. • The reintroduction of Shariah is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements in Muslim countries.  • 3 categories of crimes in Shariah law • Qisas (personal injury) • Hudud (claims against God, including blasphemy) • Tazir (all offenses not covered under qisas and hudud) 

  18. 1) Public: Purpose is to define what you believe, defend it, then reverse the challenge publicly. • Sometimes you are in hostile arenas • Sometimes you are in public but non-hostile arenas • Now is the opportunity to learn your apologetics/polemics adequately, before applying it elsewhere.

  19. 2) Laboratory: Remember now is the time for trial and error. -A place to practice what you have learned in class, in your research, in your discussions, etc... -Expect to make mistakes. -Don’t be upset when you do. -Simply learn from them, then ‘get back up on the horse’, and try again, or move on. -You are a ‘sojourner’ here, thus you won’t be held accountable for the mistakes you make here. -Learn from those mistakes, and make sure you don’t repeat them. -This is ideal preparation for your chosen field.

  20. 3) Mosaic: People are not monolithic, but multi-faceted. • Anyone can be standing in front of you • Allows you to ‘dovetail’ (apply) responses for each personality. • Forces you to meet their specific need. • “What is good for Aaron may not work for Ahmed”

  21. 4) Focus: The Audience is your primary goal, not necessarily the one you’re speaking to • So, concentrate on them, and not on the detractors. • By focusing on them, you neutralize the detractors • Use the crowd to substantiate your view. • Look at them when you talk, speak to them, question them, involve them, and employ their support. • Your larger audience are the ones you are trying to convince.

  22. METHODOLOGY: • Pray: • Always have a prayer covering. • Remember this is a battle you are in, and thus requires ‘weapons not of this world.’ • Prayer is to be employed: before, during, and after the time you are ‘in battle.’

  23. 2) Pairs: • Try always to go in twos, or more. • One person to speak, the other to pray. • Preferably, one should be a veteran, with experience. • Roles can be flipped, depending on the need, or time.

  24. 3) Rule of Thumb # 1 • ‘Scratch where they itch’ • To know them, you will need to first listen to them. • Yet, maintain control at all times. • Don’t let them set the agenda. • Stay away from ‘shopping list questions’

  25. 4) Rule of Thumb # 2: • ‘Scratch where they don’t itch’ • You must go beyond friendship, to introduce the Gospel, which will confront! • Assume a heated response. • The moral demands of God and the personhood of Jesus will produce a worthy battleground.

  26. 5) Response: • ‘3 C’s’ = ‘Quick’, ‘Concise’, yet ‘Comprehensive’ • We tend to take our time, so learn to give ‘2- minute sound-bites’ (usual attention span for most persons) • We tend to be verbose, so be succinct. • We seek erudition, so seek simplicity (remember ‘8th grade educational level’ for all polemics) • We tend to be ‘fuzzy thinkers’, so learn to be logical.

  27. 6) Application: There is a need to be multi-faceted in your response. • We must be both Conciliatory and Confrontational • We must use both Apologetics and Polemics. • Proceed so that the onus is not always on us, but back where it belongs…on them. • Not ‘either’ - ‘or’; but ‘both’ - ‘and’

  28. 7) Demeanor: • Be gentle, yet passionate, be considerate, yet forthright. • How you say it is almost as important as what you say. • Show confidence in your material, and in your decisions. • Do not employ ‘character assassination’. • Our material is too good, and our testimony too precious. • Don’t waste time on innocuous argumentation.

  29. 8) End-game: • Bring discussions around to the Gospel • Christ died for us, the godly for the ungodly • You have His favor; you don’t have to earn it • Jesus strapped Himself to a cross so you won’t have to strap a bomb to yourself • Remind yourself who is in charge, and for whom you are there the Lord! • Why former Muslim Ergun Caner became a Christian: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5gkXLsCHYM

  30. Doctrines of Islam

  31. Five Pillars of Islam • uniqueness of God ‘There is no god, but God….’ • Prayer five times a day • Give alms to the poor • Observe the month of Ramadan • Pilgrimage to Mecca If possible, once in your life

  32. Shahada: Profession of Faith “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the prophet of God.” • Sincere recitation of this profession in Arabic in the presence of Muslims is the sole requirement for those who wish to join the Muslim community. • It represents acceptance not only of Allah and his prophet, but of the entirety of Islam. • The shahada is also recited in the muzzein's call to prayer.

  33. Salat: Ritual Prayer • 5 times a day, at dawn, midday, afternoon, sunset, and evening, the Muslim prays to Allah. • The content of the prayer is glorification of Allah, recitations of the Qur'an, and blessings on the Prophet. • Salatmust always be preceded by the ritual washing of the face, hands, and feet. • The Muslim is always to face in the direction of the Ka‘abashrine in Mecca

  34. Zakat: Annual Charity Tax • Required of every adult Muslim with sufficient means • The rate of zakat is 2.5%, not of income, but of the value of all of one's possessions. • Voluntary almsgiving is also encouraged • The recipients of the tax are Muslim • Needy or Poor • Debtors • Volunteers in jihad • Pilgrims • Collectors of the tax And people considering reverting to Islam

  35. Sawm: Fasting During the Month of Ramadan • During the ninth month of the Islamic year, all adult Muslims are required to abstain from food, drink and sexual intercourse during daylight hours. • Exceptions: travelers, soldiers, menstruating women, and the ill • Commemorates the revelation of the Qur'an to humanity • An opportunity for increased prayer and devotion

  36. Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca • Expected of each Muslim in his or her lifetime, Hajj is a journey to the Grand Mosque in Mecca, during the last month of the Islamic year. • Exceptions: those too sick or poor must send someone else in their place The Muslim must • Dress in plain white sheets and sandals, signifying purity and equality (male) • Dress in only white with only hands and face uncovered (female) • Walk around the Ka’aba 7 times, kiss or touch the Black Stone, pray, hear sermons, etc.

  37. Final Things • This life is a preparation for the next • Every person will taste death • Two angels will question the dead in the grave (Munkar and Nakir) • Unbelievers will be tormented in the grave and after the final resurrection • The “Final Hour” will be preceded by disintegration of nature and universal sin

  38. Jihad • “The more common interpretation, and that of the overwhelming majority of the classical jurists and commentators , presents jihad as armed struggle for Islam against infidels and apostates.” (Bernard Lewis, professor of Near Eastern Studies, Princeton University) • The Lesser Jihad • The word means ‘striving’ or ‘struggle’ • Often used in the sense of personal striving in the path of God. • The Greater Jihad • According to Islamic law there are two domains • Dar al-Islam, the house of Islam, or peace • Dar al-Harb, the house of War, or enemy lands

  39. Jihad and Non-Muslims • 9:5 Kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. • 9:29-30 Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture - [fight] until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled. The Jews say, "Ezra is the son of Allah "; and the Christians say, "The Messiah is the son of Allah ." That is their statement from their mouths; they imitate the saying of those who disbelieved [before them]. May Allah destroy them; how are they deluded?

  40. Jihad and Non-Muslims • 47:4-6 “So when you meet those who disbelieve [in battle], strike [their] necks until, when you have inflicted slaughter upon them, then secure their bonds, and either [confer] favor afterwards or ransom [them] until the war lays down its burdens. That [is the command]. And if Allah had willed, He could have taken vengeance upon them [Himself], but [He ordered armed struggle] to test some of you by means of others. And those who are killed in the cause of Allah - never will He waste their deeds. He will guide them and amend their condition. And admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them.”

  41. Dhimmitude: Legal Status of the Non-Muslim • Derived from Dhimmi, which means a non-Muslim living in an Islamic country. • Jizyah tax must be paid by the dhimmis as a sign of submission • Dhimmis are barred from carrying arms to protect themselves, serving in the army or government, displaying symbols of their faith, building or repairing places of worship. • Dhimmis must wear distinctive clothing including a Zunar belt wherever they go.

  42. Apostates: Those who leave the religion of Islam Those who turn their back on Islam are to be executed.  • Quran direct references to execution of apostates: 4:89, 9:11-12 • Quran references to treatment of apostates: 77:19-24, 9:73-74, 2:217, 9:66 • Hadith direct references to execution of apostates: 4:52:260, 9:89:271, 9:84:64

  43. Muhammad’s prophecies came in two periods: Meccan, and Medinan Allah alters what was once declared lawful into unlawful, and vice versa Different situations call for different regulations Example: The aggressive verses of Surah 9 may abrogate the more tolerant material in Surah 109 From the Qur’an 2:106 16:101 13:39 From the Hadith Bukhari 6:60:32-34 Muslim 3:675 Naskh (Abrogation)

  44. From the Qur’an • 16:106 • 3:28 • 9:3 • 2:225 • 3:54 (makara means deceit) • From the Hadith • Bukhari 3:49:857 • Bukhari 9:84:64 • Bukhari 5:59:369 Taqiyya & Kitman • Falsehoods told to prevent the denigration of Islam, to protect oneself, or to promote the cause of Islam are sanctioned in the Qur'an and Hadith, including lying under oath in testimony before a court, and deceiving by making distorted statements to the media. A Muslim is even permitted to deny or denounce his faith if, in so doing, he protects or furthers the interests of Islam, so long as he remains faithful to Islam in his heart.

  45. Shariah Law • The code of conduct or religiouslaw of Islam. • Shariah is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Qur'an, and the example set by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad in the Hadith. • The reintroduction of Shariah is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements in Muslim countries.  • 3 categories of crimes in Shariah law • Qisas (personal injury) • Hudud (claims against God, including blasphemy) • Tazir (all offenses not covered under qisas and hudud) 

  46. Additional teachings • dietary laws • no gambling or drinking • no sexual irregularities, as defined by tradition and custom • no faulty weights or usury • no infanticide • elaborate rules concerning inheritance and property • improvement in the status of women and children