Muslims • Who is a Muslim? • What are the different types of Muslims? • Why do Muslims believe in Islam? • When was the religion of Islam founded? • Where do Muslims live? • How do the legal and moral codes of Islam affect Muslims? By Kashiim Clemons, Adria Peterson, Tina Treichler and Mark Vega
Who is a Muslim? • A Muslim is a follower of Islam • Islam is the religion while a Muslim is a person professing Islam. • The word Islam comes from the Arabic root sa la ma, meaning the peace, security, and serenity that is inherent in submission, or total surrender, to the will of Almighty God. A Muslim spends his or her life endeavoring to please God by worshipping Him and obeying His laws, or rules. • There are approximately 1.8 billion Muslims, making Islam the second largest religion in the world after Christianity
What are the different types of Muslims? • About 90% of Muslims are Sunnis • Sunnis believe in democratic elections to select the best person to lead the Muslim nation.Based on this principle, Abu Bakar, a senior companion of the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was chosen as the first successor of the Prophet. • Shiites represent the majority of remaining Muslims • The choice of AbuBakar was disputed by some of Muhammad's (peace be upon him) companions. They believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib (his cousin and son-in-law) had been designated his successor. • There are numerous sects
Why do Muslims believe in Islam? • Islam is based on the ministry of a man named Muhammad (Muslims usually say “peace be upon him” after saying his name) and on the words that Allah (God) gave to the world through Muhammad (peace be upon him) through the Qu’ran.Muslim doctrine is often summarized in the "Six Articles of Faith” and the 5 duties that every Muslim must perform. According to the "Six Articles of Faith” a Muslim must believe in: مسلم مسلم مسلم • One God. • The angels of God. • The books of God, especially the Qur'an; • The prophets of God, especially Muhammad; • The Day of Judgment (or the afterlife); and • The supremacy of God's will (or predestination).
The 5 duties Muslims must perform • Every Muslim is obliged to perform five duties (also called 5 pillars) of Islam to help put their faith into action. • Shahadah: Declaration of faith. Enter Islamic faith by reciting, "I bear witness that there is no god, but God; I bear witness that Muhammad is the prophet of God. • Salah: PrayerRequired to pray 5 times a day and community worship on Friday at a mosque. • Zakat: Charity Required to give away a percentage of their earnings to those less fortunate, regardless of their religion. • Saum: Fasting Fast for one lunar month (called Ramadan) each year. During this time, Muslims reflect on their behavior and strive to purify their thoughts. • Hajj: Pilgrimage to MeccaIf it is financially possible, required to travel to Mecca once in their lifetime.
When was the religion of Islam founded? Muhammad (peace be upon him) was born about 570 Ad in the Arabian city of Mecca. He was orphaned at a young age and brought up under the care of his uncle. He worked mostly as a merchant and was first married by age 25. Discontented with life at 40 he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains to meditate and reflect. in the month of Ramadan he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad began preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that “God is one", that complete "surrender" to Him is the only way acceptable to God, and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets. Muhammad and his few followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622 CE. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to ten thousand, conquered Mecca. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian peninsula had converted to Islam; and he united the various tribes. Muslim warriors in history. Out of respect to Muhammad (peace be upon him) no artwork is depicted of him in this video.
Where Do Muslims Live? • Muslims live throughout the world but Asia has the highest population of Muslims with Indonesia first • Saudi Arabia, North Africa and parts of Asia have the highest Muslim population • Based on data from a 2007 survey Pew Research Center Survey, along with available Census Bureau data on immigrants' nativity and nationality, Pew estimates the total population of Muslims in the United States at 2.35 million. • The survey shows they believe that Muslims coming to the U.S. should try and adopt American customs, rather than trying to remain distinct from the larger society. And by nearly two-to-one (63%-32%) Muslim Americans do not see a conflict between being a devout Muslim and living in a modern society. - Roughly two-thirds (65%) of adult Muslims in the U.S. were born elsewhere. - A majority of Muslim Americans (53%) say it has become more difficult to be a Muslim in the United States since the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. Most also believe that the government "singles out" Muslims for increased surveillance and monitoring.
How Islamic Legal and Moral Codes Affect Muslims? • Sharia is the legal and moral code of Islam. It was systematized in the early centuries of the Muslim era (8th – 9th century AD) and rests on four bases: the Qu’ran; the sunna, as recorded in the Hadith; ijma, or agreement among scholars; and qiya, or analogical reasoning. • Sunna is a body of traditional social and legal customs and practices that constitutes proper observance of Islam. Early Muslims did not concur on what constituted sunna so in the 8th century the sunna of Muhammad, as preserved in eyewitness records, was codified as the Hadith by Abu ‘Abd Allah Shaf’ii. Hadith is revered by Muslims as a major source of religious law and moral guidance. It consists of two parts: the oral law itself and the isnad, or chain of authorities who passed it down to posterity. • Unlike the The Qu’ran (2:173) which specifically forbids certain types of food such as pork according to the Hadith, men and women should behave modestly in situations where they meet each other. Modest behavior includes averting your eyes from someone of the opposite sex, speaking with respect to one another, and not touching members of the opposite sex. The Hadith also includes rules for dressing. Both men and women are directed to cover themselves when they are in public areas.In a basic form, the Hadith states that women should cover their bodies in loose, thick clothing to prevent the shape of the body from being seen
How Sharia Differs from Western Law? Sharia differs fundamentally from Western law in that it claims to be grounded in divine revelation. - Among modern Muslim countries, Saudi Arabia and Iran retain Sharia as the law of the land, in both civil and criminal proceedings. - The legal codes of most other Muslim countries combine elements of Islamic and Western law where necessary. Most Islamic fundamentalist groups insist that Muslim countries should be governed by Sharia.
Why do Islamic fundamentalists garner community support for Sharia? Beyond religious beliefs many Muslim countries fail to develop politically or economically. Citizens in some Muslim countries cannot depend on their country to provide: - Security - Justice -Education If you add corruption to this mix it is understandable that citizens will want order instead of chaos in their life.
Islamic Fundamentalism vs. Radicalism Some form of Sharia (Islamic law) is introduced to daily life which usually means no music, no liquor, no smoking and no female emancipation. - Islamic fundamentalists want Islamic rule locally - Islamic radicals like Al Qaeda want Islamic rule and *jihad globally. • * There is much confusion over the word jihad. In Arabic, the word jihād is a noun meaning "struggle."] A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid, the plural is mujahideen. • Jihad has two different meanings: • Non-believers or Muslims who interpret their faith differently are infidels and therefore legitimate targets of jihad. • The second meaning, associated with mystics, rejects the legal definition of jihad as armed conflict and tells Muslims to withdraw from worldly concerns to achieve spiritual self perfection.
Resources • http://www.submission.org/muhammed/jihad.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jihad • http://www.ezsoftech.com/islamic/meraj.asp • Fareed Zakaria, Learning to Live With Radical Islam Newsweek, March 9, 2009 • 2004 Report to US Congress