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The Immune system

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  1. The Immune system What it is and its role in the body

  2. Immune System • Purpose is to keep infectious microorganisms out of the body and destroy those that enter. • Made up of a complex system of organs and cells

  3. Organs involved are called lymphoid organs

  4. White Blood Cells • Also called Leukocytes • Phagocytes • Attack invading pathogens • Macrophages • Type of Phagocyte • Reacts by engulfing pathogen and making antigens identifiable

  5. Immune Response • Antigens • Substances that can trigger an immune response • Antibody • A protein that acts against a specific antigen

  6. Lymphocytes • Type of infection-fighting white blood cell • Patrol for pathogens • Originate in bone marrow • Two types of lymphocytes • B cells • Finish maturing in bone marrow • T cells • Finish maturing in thymus • Once matured, some stay in lymphoid organs while others go out on patrol

  7. T cells • 3 types • Helper • Facilitates production of B cells and Killer T cells • Killer • Attack and destroy infected body cells, not the pathogen • Suppressor • “Commanding Officers” • Coordinate actions of other T cells

  8. B cells • Produce antibodies • Each cell is programmed to make one type of antibody that is specific to a type of pathogen • Antibodies will: • Attach to antigens to mark them for destruction • Destroy invading pathogens • Block viruses from entering body cells

  9. White Blood Cell Chart White Blood Cells/Leukocytes Phagocytes Lymphocytes Macrophages B cells T cells Helper Killer Suppressor

  10. Immune Response • Pathogens Invade • Macrophages engulf pathogen • Macrophages digest pathogen; T cells recognize antigens of pathogen as invaders • T cells bind to antigens • B cells bind to antigens and helper T cells • B cells divide and produce plasma cells • Plasma cells release antibodies into bloodstream • Antibodies bind to antigens to help other cells identify and destroy pathogens

  11. Common Pathogens that Cause Infectious Diseases • Viruses • Bacteria • Fungi • Protozoa • Rickettsias

  12. Virus • Piece of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat • Reproduce by invading cells of living organisms • Multiply then begin taking over other cells • Most common are the cold and influenza • Antibiotics DO NOT work against viruses

  13. Bacteria • Single-celled microorganisms • Most are harmless and some are helpful • Disease-causing produce toxins • Substances that kill cells or interfere with their functions • Antibiotics kill bacteria

  14. Spreading Disease • Direct Contact • Touching, kissing, etc. • Indirect Contact • Sharing contaminated objects, vectors such as insects • Airborne • Sneezing or coughing pathogens out of your body can enter another’s, fungal spores

  15. Vaccinations • Vaccinations are weak or dead pathogens intentionally put into the body • Immune response takes over and develops the antibodies to defend against the actual disease if it ever enters the body • Why do we need a flu shot every year? • Why isn’t there one vaccine for the common cold?

  16. Allergic Reactions • Allergy • Disorder of the immune system • Allergic Reactions are the result of the immune system dramatically responding to what it interprets as a threat (dust, pollen, pet dander, etc.) • Allergens • Substances that cause allergic reactions • Reactions can range from minor (watery eyes, itchiness, slight wheezing, runny nose) to major (hives, swelling of tongue and throat, difficulty breathing, dizziness, headache, stomach issues, shock, or loss of consciousness)

  17. Anaphylactic Shock • Life threatening reaction to allergens • People who suffer major reactions can go into anaphylactic shock. • Sudden drop in blood pressure occurs • Usually caused by reactions to allergens in food, insect bites or stings, drug, or chemical • People who are aware of life-threatening allergies may have an EpiPen ready to use • EpiPen – single dose of epinephrine to be administered to the outer thigh only. • Increases heart rate and strength of heart beat • Dr. prescribed only!! • When an EpiPen needs to be used medical attention is needed immediately after administration

  18. HIV, Aids, and sti

  19. HIV and AIDS • HIV • Human Immunodeficiency Virus • Leads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) • Destroys specific T cells (CD4+ T cells) crucial to helping the body fight infections • HIV can exist for years before leading to AIDS • HIV levels increase while the T cells decrease • Leaves body more prone to infections and diseases

  20. How HIV Works • HIV Virus in blood • Attaches to T cell and empties contents • Viral DNA is created and inserts into cell’s DNA • Infected cell divides with new DNA code • Cell division creates raw protein material • Raw infected material is packaged into an immature virus cell • Leaves infected cell through “budding” • New immature cell matures and then attacks another healthy cell New infected cells are slightly different (mutations) than where they came from Why is this a major problem??

  21. HIV Symptoms • Very few, if any symptoms show at first • Roughly 2 to 3 months after contraction, flu-like symptoms will show including fatigue and swollen lymph nodes in neck and groin • Symptoms may go away

  22. HIV Later Stage Symptoms • Later stage symptoms • Rapid Weight Loss • Recurring night sweats and fever • Extreme fatigue • Prolonged lymph node swelling • Diarrhea lasting more than a week • Sores at the mouth, anus, and genitals • Red, brown, pink, or purple splotches under the skin or inside mouth, nose, or eyelids

  23. HIV Treatment • Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) • Drugs do not kill the virus but slow its ability to spread and infect healthy cells • About 30 different drugs available • Block different stages of the virus’ reproduction and infection process Possible Cure?

  24. AIDS • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome • Is not HIV but occurs during late stages of HIV • Immune system becomes deficient • Diagnosed when patient contracts one or more specific Opportunistic Infections (OI), certain cancers, or has a very low CD4+ T cell count

  25. Other Sexually Transmitted Infections • Half of all new sexually transmitted infectionsoccur among people aged 15-24 • Common STIs are: • Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea • Viral Hepatitis • Genital Herpes • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

  26. Sexually Transmitted Infections • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) • Syphilis • Trichomoniasis • Pubic Lice • Scabies

  27. Chlamydia • Affects both men and women • Sexually active women age 25 and younger need testing every year • Easy to cure yet an untreated infection can impact a woman’s ability to have children later in life by causing permanent damage to reproductive organs • “Silent Infection”

  28. Chlamydia • Most people show no symptoms when contracted • Women • Starts in the cervix or urethra then spreads to uterus and fallopian tubes • Leads to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) • Could cause unusual discharge from vagina or burning sensation when urinating • Men • Could have discharge from penis or burning sensation • Pain and swelling in one or both testicles (epididymitis) could occur

  29. Treatment for Chlamydia • Antibiotics • During treatment, abstain from sexual activity (7 days) • Repeat infection can occur

  30. Gonorrhea • CDC estimates that about 820,000 people contract gonorrhea annually • Estimated that 570,000 are 15-24 years old • Affects both men and women

  31. Gonorrhea • Men • Burning sensation when urinating • White, yellow, or green discharge from penis • Epididymitis can occur • Symptoms appear between 1-14 days after infection • Women • Usually show no symptoms • Can be mistaken for bladder or vaginal infection • Discharge, burning when urinating, or bleeding between periods can occur • Can lead to PID

  32. Treatment for Gonorrhea • Left untreated, can be life-threatening by spreading to blood and joints • Different antibiotics can be prescribed • Drug-resistant gonorrhea has become more prevalent

  33. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) • Most common STI (approx. 79 million Americans have it) • About 14 million new infections per year • CDC estimates that nearly ALL sexually active men and women contract it at some point in life • Can be acquired through oral, vaginal, or anal sex

  34. HPV • In 90% of cases, the immune system clears HPV on its own without causing health problems • Can be contracted even if infected person is showing no signs or symptoms • HPV that does not go away can cause genital warts or cancers

  35. HPV • Different types of HPV infections can lead to either • Genital Warts • Cancers • Cervix, Vulva, Vagina • Penis • Anus, Throat, Tongue and Tonsils • Cancers can develop many years after HPV is contracted • No way to forecast who gets warts or cancer

  36. HPV Prevention • Vaccination should be for boys and girls between ages 11 and 12 • Given as three shots over six months • All three doses are necessary • “Catch-up” vaccines are available for men and women ages 21-26 • Women should get screened regularly for cervical cancer • Ages 21-65 • Abstinence • Correctly used latex condoms can reduce risk • Areas not covered by condom still at risk