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The Immune System. Widely dispersed system Review of structure and function. bone marrow. located in marrow cavities of bones yellow vs. red marrow hematopoiesis. The Immune System. Review of structure and function. thymus gland. location

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

The Immune System

  • Widely dispersed system
  • Review of structure and function
  • bone marrow
  • located in marrow cavities of bones
  • yellow vs. red marrow
  • hematopoiesis
slide2

The Immune System

  • Review of structure and function
  • thymus gland
  • location
  • consists of lymphocytes and macrophages
  • “gives” immunocompetence to T lymphocytes via thymosins
slide3

The Immune System

  • Review of structure and function
  • spleen
  • location
  • red vs. white pulp
  • functions
slide4

The Immune System

  • Review of structure and function
  • lymph nodes
  • locations
  • structure
  • function
slide5

The Immune System

  • Review of structure and function
  • tonsils
  • locations
  • functions
slide6

The Immune System

  • Review of structure and function
  • lymphocytes and plasma cells
  • What is immunity?
  • origin and immunocompetence
  • T cells (cancer cells, transplants, bacteria, virus-laden cells)
  • cytotoxic T cells
  • helper T cells
  • suppressor T cells
  • memory T cells
  • B cells (viruses, bacteria)
  • plasma cells
  • memory B cells
slide7

The Immune System

  • Review of structure and function
  • lymphocytes and plasma cells
  • locations
  • primary immune response
  • secondary (anamnestic) response
slide8

Age-related changes in the

immune system

  • All lymphoid tissues decreases in mass and efficiency with age
  • Bone marrow
  • Thymus gland
  • puberty to 50, lose 90% of mass
  • loss of size = loss of thymosins
  • new T cell immunocompetence decreases
slide9

Age-related changes in the

immune system

  • B cells
  • no decline with age
  • decreased responsiveness to antigens
  • by 70, 85% reduction in antibody production
  • B cell changes may be result of decreased helper T cell numbers
slide10

Age-related changes in the

immune system

  • Spleen
  • Lymph nodes
  • Tonsils
  • reach maximum size at 12
  • palatine tonsils decrease gradually; pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid) atrophies completely
  • unclear about functional losses
slide11

Age-related dysfunctions in the

immune system

  • General decrease in immune responses
  • decreased immune sensitivity
  • increased autoimmunity
  • causes
  • decrease in precursor cells
  • decreased differentiation into T- and B-cells
  • increased suppressor T-cells
  • increased factors that inhibit immunity (?)
slide12

Age-related dysfunctions in the

immune system

  • Age-associated T-lymphocyte defects
  • T-cell numbers decrease with age
  • diseases normally held in check by T-cells are allowed to appear
  • immunosuppressive treatment has same effect
slide13

Age-related dysfunctions in the

immune system

  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
  • HIV infects helper T-cells (CD4 cells), ultimately killing them
  • alters ratio between helper T-cells and suppressor T-cells
  • normal ratio is 2:1
  • at ratio of 1:1 AIDS symptoms begin to appear
  • at ratio of 0.5:1, full-blown disease
  • Lymphomas
slide14

Take home messages about immunity

  • decreased lymphoid tissue body-wide
  • general decline in immunity
  • decreased T cell number
  • decreased B cell activity
  • increased incidences of autoimmune responses