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The Immune System . By Isabella de Jesus, Sarah Dillon, and Moriah Becker . Nonspecific Defenses Against Infection. First line of defense- skin; physical barrier against pathogens Mucous, saliva, and tears contain lysozyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls Second line of defense-

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the immune system

The Immune System

By Isabella de Jesus, Sarah Dillon, and Moriah Becker

nonspecific defenses against infection
Nonspecific Defenses Against Infection
  • First line of defense-
    • skin; physical barrier against pathogens
    • Mucous, saliva, and tears contain lysozyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls
  • Second line of defense-
    • Inflammatory response: begins when pathogen stimulate cells called mast cells to release chemicals known as histamines
      • white blood cells move from blood vessels to infected tissues and engulf and destroy bacteria
    • Interferon: interfere with viral growth by slowing down the production of new viruses
    • Fever: releases chemicals that increase body temperature which slows down or stops the growth of some pathogens
specific defenses against infection
Specific Defenses Against infection
  • Third line of defense-
    • Immune system: inactivates or kills any foreign substances or cells that enter the body
      • Respond to a particular pathogen
    • Specific immune defenses are triggered by molecules called antigens
two types of immunity
Two Types of Immunity
  • Humoral immunity-
    • Depends on the action of antibodies that circulate in the blood and lymph
    • Plasma cells produce and release antibodies that are carried through the bloodstream
    • Memory B cells react quickly if the same pathogen enters the body again
  • Cell- mediated immunity-
    • Depends on the action of macrophages and several types of T cells
    • Defends the body against some viruses, fungi, and single celled pathogens
    • T cells also protect the body from cells that become cancerous
acquired immunity
Acquired immunity
  • Active immunity-
    • Vaccination that stimulates the immune system with an antigen
    • The immune system produces memory B cells and memory T cells that quicken and strengthen the body’s response to a repeated infection
  • Passive immunity-
    • Antibodies produced against a pathogen by other individuals or animals to produce temporary immunity
    • Lasts only a short time because the immune system eventually destroys the foreign antibodies
vaccination
Vaccination

Injection of weakened or similar but less dangerous pathogen to produce immunity

immune system disorders
Immune System Disorders
  • Allergies-
    • antigens that cause allergic reactions are called allergens
    • They trigger inflammatory response by causing mast cells to release histamines
      • May cause sneezing, watery eyes, and runny nose, etc.
  • Asthma-
    • A chronic disease caused by allergic reactions in the respiratory system
      • Causes air passages to narrow causing wheezing and coughing and difficulty breathing
hiv and aids
HIV and AIDS
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus-
    • Causes AIDS
    • Deadly because it can hide from defenses of the immune system and attacks key cells in the immune system leaving it weak
  • AIDS-
    • No cure for AIDS
    • HIV mutates and evolves rapidly
key vocabulary
Key Vocabulary
  • Vector- animal that transports a pathogen to a human
  • Inflammatory response- nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection
  • Histamines- chemical released by mast cells that increases the flow of blood and fluids to the infected area during an inflammatory response
  • Fever- increase body temperature that occurs in response to infection
  • Pathogen- disease causing agent
  • Interferon- group of proteins that help cells resist viral infection
  • Immune response- the body’s specific recognition response in memory to a pathogen attack
  • Antigen- any substance that triggers an immune response
  • Antibody- protein that either attacks antigens directly or produces antigen binding proteins
  • Active immunity- immunity the develops as a result of natural or deliberate exposure to an antigen
  • Passive immunity- temporary immunity that develops as a result of natural or deliberate exposure to an antibody