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The Immune System. By Frederick Oliver Warrender Danny Toms Kiley Quinn. Intro to the Immune System. Complex structures and processes within the body that protect against disease Able to detect a wide variety of disease Involves cell-mediated and humoral response to disease

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the immune system

The Immune System

By Frederick Oliver Warrender

Danny Toms

Kiley Quinn

intro to the immune system
Intro to the Immune System
  • Complex structures and processes within the body that protect against disease
  • Able to detect a wide variety of disease
  • Involves cell-mediated and humoral response to disease
  • Adapts to defend against evolving viruses and pathogens
components
Components
  • Thymus
  • Spleen
  • Lymphatic System
  • Bone Marrow
  • White Blood Cells
  • Antibodies
  • Humoral Response
  • Cell-mediated Response
cell mediated response
Cell-mediated Response
  • Involves activation of specialized cells, such as T lymphocytes, for immunization
  • Activates killer macrophages and natural killer cells to destroy pathogens
  • Influences adaptive immune responses and innate immune responses
humoral response
Humoral Response
  • Production of antibodies and the accessory processes that accompany them
  • B cells turn into plasma cells which are able to secrete antibodies
  • Antibodies bind to antigens, which are then flagged for destruction
thymus
Thymus
  • Located in front of the heart and behind the sternum
  • Immature cells from bone marrow enter the thymus and develop T cell receptors
  • A selection process in the thymus eliminates dysfunctional T cells and chooses functional T cells
  • The functional T cells reach maturity and are secreted
spleen
Spleen
  • Red Pulp- Mechanically filters red blood cells
  • White Pulp- Active immune response through both cell-mediated and humoral response
  • Creates red blood cells and lymphocytes
lymphatic system
Lymphatic System
  • Part of the circulatory system
  • Carries lymph, which is recycled blood plasma
  • Removes interstitial fluids from tissue
  • Absorbs and transports fats and fatty acids
  • Transports white blood

cells to the lymph

nodes and bones

bone marrow
Bone Marrow
  • Flexible tissue inside bones
  • Produces 500 billion blood cells per day
  • Produces lymphocytes for the immune system response
antibodies
Antibodies
  • Also known as immunoglobulins
  • Each respond to a specific bacteria, virus, or toxin
  • Once bound to an antigen, the antibody can stop movement of the antigen and signal T cells to destroy the antigen
white blood cells
White Blood Cells
  • The most important part of the immune system
  • A wide variety of different cells that work together to destroy pathogens
  • Includes T cells, B cells, Natural Killer Cells, Macrophages, Lymphocytes, and many more
a slide with no useful information at all
A slide with no useful information at all
  • Just filling in the gap between the last slide and the next one (which will be along in just a moment).
  • No need to write this down, unless you feel compelled to do so.
  • Nothing on this slide is examinable.
  • In fact, I'm not really sure why I bothered with it.
ways to hurt the immune system
Ways to hurt the Immune System
  • Mechanical Damage- such as breaking a bone
  • Genetic Disease- caused by a coding error in the DNA
  • Malnutrition- not getting enough vitamins and minerals for proper function
  • Cancer- uncontrollable cell reproduction
  • HIV/AIDS- destroys T cells
hiv aids
HIV/AIDS
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Attacks immune system cells by reproducing inside T cells and killing them in the process
  • Without the T cells the immune system collapses and the victim is extremely vulnerable to otherwise harmless diseases
cancer
Cancer
  • Abnormal cells reproduce and grow uncontrollably, creating tumors
  • The cancer cells may spread throughout the body using the lymphatic system or bloodstream
  • There are many types of cancer and many ways it is caused, such as radiation from sunlight, tobacco use, pollutants, etc.
  • The symptoms of cancer usually depend on the type of cancer
lupus
Lupus
  • The immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissue
  • Antibodies become unable to discriminate antigens from healthy tissue, and attack both
  • Affects skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, blood, and joints
  • Causes inflammation and damage to organs and joints