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Chapter 5 South Asia

Chapter 5 South Asia

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Chapter 5 South Asia

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  1. Chapter 5South Asia

  2. Notes 5-1India (pages 144–148)

  3. Did You Know??? In 2000, India’s population rose above 1 billion people for the first time. Only China has more people.

  4. I. India’s Land and Economy (pages 144–145) A. India and several other countries—Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives—make up the SouthAsiansubcontinent. A subcontinent is a large landmass that is part of another continent but distinct from it.

  5. I. India’s Land and Economy (pages 144–145) B. The Karakoram Range and the Himalaya form India’s northern border and separate South Asia from the rest of Asia. The Himalaya are the tallest mountains in the world, averaging more than 5miles in height.

  6. I. India’s Land and Economy (pages 144–145) C. Most of India is warm or hot all year. The Himalayablockcoldnorthernair from sweeping south into the country. Monsoons, or seasonal winds that blow steadily from the same direction for months, also influence the climate.

  7. I. India’s Land and Economy (pages 144–145) D. Today, India raises most of the food it needs, but it was different in the past. Since India’s independence, its government has made an effort to improve farming output by using modern techniques and science. The result is called the greenrevolution.

  8. I. India’s Land and Economy (pages 144–145) E. India has many industries. Recently Americancomputercompanies have opened offices in India, making it an important source of computer software. Mining is also a major industry.

  9. I. India’s Land and Economy (pages 144–145) F. Many Indian products are manufactured in cottageindustries. A cottageindustry is a home- or village-based industry in which family members, including children, supply their own equipment to make goods. Products include cotton cloth, silk cloth, rugs, leather products, and metalware.

  10. II. The World’s Largest Democracy (pages 145–146) A. Like the United States, India is a democracy.

  11. II. The World’s Largest Democracy (pages 145–146) B. The most important difference between the two systems is that most of the power to run the government of India is held not by the president, but by the primeminister, who is appointed by the ruling party.

  12. II. The World’s Largest Democracy (pages 145–146) C. India’s second Prime Minister, IndiraGandhi, tried to help India’s poor by providing low-cost housing and giving land to those who owned none. She also extended votingrights.

  13. II. The World’s Largest Democracy (pages 145–146) D. India’s economic growth has brought challenges to the environment.

  14. III. India’s History and People (pages 146–148) A. In the 1500s B.C., warriors known as Aryans set up kingdoms in northern India. Aryan beliefs gradually blended with the practices of the local people to form the religion of Hinduism.

  15. III. India’s History and People (pages 146–148) B. A caste was a socialclass based on a person’s ancestry. The caste system still influences Indian life, although laws now forbid unfair treatment of one group by another.

  16. III. India’s History and People (pages 146–148) C. The British were the last of India’s conquerors, ruling from the 1700s to the mid-1900s. An Indian leader named Mohandas Gandhi led a nonviolent resistance movement.

  17. III. India’s History and People (pages 146–148) D. When India won its independence from Great Britain in 1947, Muslims were afraid their voices would not be heard by the Hindu majority. East and West Pakistan were created, one on each side of India, as a Muslim homeland. East Pakistan is now Bangladesh.

  18. III. India’s History and People (pages 146–148) E. About 80 percent of India’s people are Hindus, but Islam has over 140 million followers in India.

  19. III. India’s History and People (pages 146–148) F. India has 18 official languages, including Hindi and English. About 70 percent of the people live in farming villages.

  20. Notes 5-2Other Countries of South Asia (pages 150–155)

  21. Did You Know??? The events surrounding a Pakistani wedding last for three or four days. Trees, lampposts, and bushes near the bride’s house are decorated with small, white lights, similar to the lights some Americans put up at Christmas. Pakistani brides wear red dresses at the wedding ceremony.

  22. I. Pakistan (pages 150–151) A. Pakistan is largely Muslim.

  23. I. Pakistan (pages 150–151) B. Towering mountains occupy most of northern and western Pakistan. The HinduKush mountain range lies in the far north. Several passes cut through its rugged peaks. The best known is the KhyberPass. For centuries, it has been used by people traveling through South Asia from the north.

  24. I. Pakistan (pages 150–151) C. Kashmir is a mostly Muslim territory on the northern border of India and Pakistan. Kashmir is currently divided between the two countries. Both nations want to control the entire region, mainly for its vast water resources. This dispute over Kashmir has sparked three wars between Pakistan and India.

  25. I. Pakistan (pages 150–151) D. Pakistan has had many changes of government since independence—some were elected, others seized power.

  26. I. Pakistan (pages 150–151) E. The official language, Urdu, is the first language of only 9 percent of the people. English is widely spoken in government.

  27. I. Pakistan (pages 150–151) F. In the far north lies Islamabad, the capital. The government built this well planned, modern city to draw people inland from crowded coastal areas.

  28. II. Bangladesh (pages 151–152) A. Bangladesh is nearly surrounded by India and shares many cultural features with India.

  29. II. Bangladesh (pages 151–152) B. Two major rivers—the Brahmaputra River and the Ganges River—flow through the lush, low plains that cover most of Bangladesh.

  30. II. Bangladesh (pages 151–152) C. The monsoons affect Bangladesh. When the monsoons end, cyclones may strike. A cyclone is an intense tropical storm system with high winds and heavy rains. Cyclones, in turn, may be followed by deadly tidal waves that surge up from the BayofBengal.

  31. II. Bangladesh (pages 151–152) D. Most people farm. Rice is the most important crop. The fertile soil and plentiful water make it possible for rice to be grown and harvested three times a year. Still, Bangladesh cannot grow enough food for its people.

  32. II. Bangladesh (pages 151–152) E. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated and poorest countries in the world.

  33. III. Nepal (pages 152–153) A. Nepal’s land forms a stairway to the world’s highest mountain range—the Himalaya. Nepal is home to MountEverest.

  34. III. Nepal (pages 152–153) B. Nepal’s economy depends on farming. Farmers grow rice, sugarcane, wheat, corn, and potatoes.

  35. III. Nepal (pages 152–153) C. Nepal is a parliamentarydemocracy ruled by a primeminister. The capital and largest city is Kathmandu.

  36. IV. Bhutan (pages 153–154) A. The Himalaya are the major landform of the country. More than 90 percent of Bhutan’s people are subsistencefarmers. They live in the fertile mountain valleys and grow cardamom, oranges, rice, corn, and potatoes. People also herd cattle and yaks, which are a type of oxen.

  37. IV. Bhutan (pages 153–154) B. Most people remain deeply loyal to Buddhism. In Bhutan, Buddhist centers of prayer and study are called dzongs. They have shaped the country’s art and culture.

  38. IV. Bhutan (pages 153–154) C. In 1998 Bhutan began to move toward democracy.

  39. V. Sri Lanka (pages 154–155) A. Sri Lanka is one of the world’s leading producers of tea and rubber. It is also famous for its sapphires, rubies, and other gemstones.

  40. V. Sri Lanka (pages 154–155) B. The British ruled Sri Lanka—then called Ceylon—from 1802 to 1948, when it became independent. Today Sri Lanka is a republic.

  41. V. Sri Lanka (pages 154–155) C. Sri Lanka’s people belong to two major ethnic groups, the Sinhalese and the Tamils. The Sinhalese live in the southern and western parts of the island. The Tamils live mostly in the north and east.

  42. V. Sri Lanka (pages 154–155) D. Since 1983 the Tamils and Sinhalese have fought a violent civilwar.

  43. The End