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SOUTH ASIA (CHAPTER 8). THE REALM. Five Regions India Pakistan Bangladesh Mountainous North Southern Islands. MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF SOUTH ASIA. Well defined physiographically The world’s second largest population cluster Low income economies

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slide2

THE REALM

Five Regions

  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Bangladesh
  • Mountainous North
  • Southern Islands
major geographic qualities of south asia
MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF SOUTH ASIA
  • Well defined physiographically
  • The world’s second largest population cluster
  • Low income economies
  • Population concentrated in villages - subsistence agriculture
  • Boundary problems - Kashmir
  • FEDERAL SYSTEM
    • ADOPTED BY INDIA IN 1947
    • PROVIDES REGIONS AND PEOPLES WITH SOME AUTONOMY AND IDENTITY
monsoons
Monsoons

--“To know India and her people, one has to know the monsoon.”

--To the people of India, the monsoons are a source of life, but it also causes destruction.

-- Very distinctive seasonal precipitation regime

culture
CULTURE
  • A culturally fragmented realm
  • Religious and linguistic diversity
  • Religious Patterns:
    • Islam is predominant in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    • Hinduism is predominant in India, generally.
    • Sikhism thrives in northern India.
    • Buddhism is predominant in Sri Lanka.
culture hearth the indus river
CULTURE HEARTHThe Indus River
  • Where an early culture emerged and developed
    • Arts and trade routes emerged from isolated ethnic groups and villages to towns and beyond.
    • Hinduism emerged from the beliefs and practices brought to India by the Aryans (6th century BC)
    • Buddhism born of discontent; made the state religion of India in 3rd century BC
    • Islam swept through central India from the 8th -10th centuries AD
slide10
One of the world’s oldest religions

Diffused south and east down the Ganges River (see text for holy site).

Absorbed and eventually supplanted earlier native religions and customs

HINDUISM

hinduism
HINDUISM
  • Not just a religion; an intricate web of religious, philosophical, social, economic, and artistic elements
  • No common creed, no single doctrine
  • No direct divine revelation
  • No rigid narrow moral code
major tenets of hinduism
MAJOR TENETS OF HINDUISM
  • Three main ideas are important in understanding the Hindu religion and the Caste System
    • Reincarnation
    • Karma
    • Dharma
reincarnation
REINCARNATION
  • Every living thing has a soul.
  • When a living thing dies, its soul moves into another living creature.
  • Souls are reborn in a newly created life.
karma
KARMA
  • Every action brings about certain results.
  • There is no escaping the consequences of one’s actions.
  • Good behavior is rewarded when the soul is reborn into a higher ranking living creature; bad behavior is punished when the soul is reborn into a lower ranking living creature.
dharma
DHARMA
  • A set of rules that must be followed by all living things if they wish to work their way up the ladder of reincarnation.
  • Each person’s dharma is different.
slide16

THREE

BASIC PRACTICES

  • Puja or worship (also, Hindus do not eat beef)
  • Cremation of the dead
  • Regulations of the caste system (note video)
origins and spread of buddhism

E. J. PALKA

ORIGINS AND SPREAD OF BUDDHISM
  • Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.) – a.k.a Buddha. Born in Nepal.
  • Buddhism came from Hinduism (just as Christianity came from Judaism).
  • Emperor Asoka adopted it as the state religion (3rd Century B.C.)
  • Adherents object to harsher features of Hinduism (e.g. Caste System)
  • Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledge
  • Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals
four noble truths of buddhism
FOUR “NOBLE TRUTHS” OF BUDDHISM
  • Sorrow and suffering are part of all life.
  • People suffer because they desire things they cannot have.
  • The way to escape suffering is to end desire, to stop wanting, and to reach a stage of not wanting.
  • To end desire, follow the “middle path,” i.e., the path that avoids the extremes of too much pleasure and desire.
fall of buddhism on the subcontinent
FALL OF BUDDHISM ON THE SUBCONTINENT
  • Hinduism was broad and tolerant, accepting many of the teachings of Buddha, so many stayed with Hinduism
  • Also, Buddhists in India were willing to compromise with the beliefs and customs of Hinduism
  • Final blow to Buddhism came in the 8th century, with the arrival of Islam, which:

-- Destroyed the great Buddhist monasteries

-- Burned libraries

-- Killed monks

  • Today there are only 1 million Buddhists in India – in the region where it started!
religious contrasts
ISLAM

Monotheistic

No idols

One sacred book

Uniform dogma - 5 pillars

Intolerant (of other religions)

Eat beef/Sacrifice cows

Bury Dead

Social Equality (in theory)

Theocratic society (state religion encouraged)

HINDUISM

Polytheistic

Many idols

Various sacred writings

Varying beliefs

Absorbed other religions

Don’t eat beef/Venerate cows

Burn dead (cremation)

Caste separation

Having the religion as part of the “State” is of secondary importance

RELIGIOUS CONTRASTS
india
INDIA
  • ENCOMPASSES 3/4s OF SOUTH ASIA’S TOTAL AREA
  • A FEDERATION OF 28 STATES, AND 1 National Capital Territory.
  • POPULATION OF 1.124 BILLION PEOPLE – the world’s largest democracy.
  • 28% URBANIZED
  • 14 MAJOR AND NUMEROUS MINOR LANGUAGES
economic development india
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (INDIA)
  • 38% LIVE BELOW THE POVERTY LINE
  • A MIXTURE OF TRADITIONAL VILLAGE FARMING AND MODERN AGRICULTURE
  • HANDICRAFTS, OLD AND NEW BRANCHES OF INDUSTRY; CLOTHING INDUSTRY (note video)
  • MULTITUDE OF SUPPORT SERVICES AND NUCLEAR POWER
slide26

E. J. PALKA

E. J. PALKA

green revolution
GREEN REVOLUTION
  • THE SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER YIELD, FAST-GROWING VARIETIES OF RICE AND OTHER CEREALS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    • INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM-1960s
    • FOCUSED ON THE FOOD CRISES
    • INCREASED PRODUCTION PER UNIT AREA VIA:
      • MIRACLE CROPS
      • NEW IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
      • INTENSIVE USE OF FERTILIZERS
india s great cities
INDIA’S GREAT CITIES
  • MUMBAI(BOMBAY) - 18.9 MILLION
    • ACHIEVED “PRIMACY” BASED ON ITS SITUATION. It was the nearest Indian Port to Europe.
  • KOLKATA (CALCUTTA) - 14.6 MILLION
    • 500,000 HOMELESS
    • FORMER BRITISH COLONIAL CAPITAL (1772-1912)
  • DELHI (NEW AND OLD) - 16.2 MILLION
    • BRITISH AND INDIAN SEAT OF GOVERNMENT
pakistan at partition 1947
PAKISTAN (AT PARTITION, 1947)

India

WestPakistan

EastPakistan

pakistan
PAKISTAN
  • ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN
  • POPULATION OF 166.9 MILLION
  • 80% SUNNI MUSLIMS; 16% SHIA MINORITY
  • 34% URBANIZED
kashmir jammu and kashmir
KASHMIR (Jammu and Kashmir)
  • Although its population is mainly Muslim, much of Jammu and Kashmir became part of India in 1947. India and Pakistan have fought two wars over the territory, and there has been a separatist insurgency in the area.
  • INDEPENDENCE & PARTITION
    • FACED WITH THE CHOICE OF JOINING EITHER HINDU INDIA OR MUSLIM PAKISTAN
    • HINDU MAHARAJA BUT MUSLIM POPULATION
  • JANUARY 1949 – U.N. CEASE FIRE
  • 1980 to 88 – Muslim extremists continue insurgency
bangladesh
BANGLADESH
  • INDEPENDENT SINCE 1971
  • FORMERLY EAST PAKISTAN (see previous slides)
  • 85% MUSLIM, 12% HINDU
  • 147.3 MILLION PEOPLE
  • DENSITY = 3,914/sq mi
  • 2.1% ANNUAL GROWTH RATE
  • NATURAL HAZARDS – CYCLONES
the southern islands
THE SOUTHERN ISLANDS
  • MALDIVES
    • >1,000 ISLANDS
    • <115 SQ MI / 300 SQ KMS
    • POPULATION OF 300,000
    • OVERWHELMINGLY MUSLIM
    • HIGHEST GNP IN THE REALM
  • SRI LANKA
    • FORMERLY CEYLON
    • INDEPENDENT SINCE 1948
sri lanka
SRI LANKA
  • 20.1 MILLION PEOPLE (70% BUDDHISTS)
  • PLANTATION AGRICULTURE:
    • TEA, RUBBER, COCONUTS
  • SOUTH (MAJORITY OF POPULATION)
      • ARYAN
      • BUDDHISTS
      • SPEAK SINHALA (INDO-EUROPEAN)
  • NORTH (18% OF THE POPULATION)
      • DRAVIDIAN
      • HINDU
      • TAMIL LANGUAGE
slide37

SRI LANKA

  • SINHALESE vs. TAMILS
  • TAMILS DEMAND EQUAL RIGHTS:

-- EDUCATION

-- EMPLOYMENT

-- LAND OWNERSHIP

-- LANGUAGE AND POLITICS

  • LTTE – LIBERATION TIGERS OF TAMIL EELAM
slide38

E. J. PALKA

E. J. PALKA

E. J. PALKA

slide39

E. J. PALKA

E. J. PALKA