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IRAN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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IRAN. Iran . Capital: Tehran 634,562 square miles 4,000 feet above sea level Population: 67 million Major language: Persian Religious affiliation Shi’a Muslim 89% Sunni Muslim 10% Known as Persia until 1935. Impact of the Past. Irrigation made civilization possible

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  • Capital: Tehran
  • 634,562 square miles
  • 4,000 feet above sea level
  • Population: 67 million
  • Major language: Persian
  • Religious affiliation
    • Shi’a Muslim 89%
    • Sunni Muslim 10%
  • Known as Persia until 1935
impact of the past
Impact of the Past
  • Irrigation made civilization possible
    • Disrupted waterworks had devastating consequences
  • Target of conquest
    • Natural crossroad
impact of the past4
Impact of the Past
  • Indo-Europeans 15th century b.c.e
  • Cyrus and Darius
    • 6th century b.c.e.
  • Greeks under Alexander
  • Arab-Islamic in 7th cent. c.e.
  • Turkish tribes in 11th c.e.
impact of the past5
Impact of the Past
  • Iran, formerly known as Persia
  • “the sleep of nations”
    • Far behind the west
    • Views this as an adversity
  • If and how Iran will move into modernity is one of the major questions?
the arab conquest
The Arab Conquest
  • Islam means “submission to God’s will”
  • Islam arrived by the sword
  • Most Zoroastrianism, old religion, fled to India
the arab conquest7
The Arab Conquest
  • Islam taught all Muslims were equal
  • Persia adopted Arabic script
    • Arabs copied Persian architecture and civil administration
  • Under Persian Control for 6 centuries
the arab conquest8
The Arab Conquest
  • 1055: Turks
  • Mongols and Genghis Khan
    • The Mongol “World Conqueror”
    • Arrived in 1219
    • Embraced Islam
the arab conquest9
The Arab Conquest

“We may be conquered, but the conqueror always ends up adopting our superior culture and becomes one of us.”

the arab conquest10
The Arab Conquest
  • Safavids in 1501 boosted development of a Iranian identity
    • Switched from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam
    • Attack allowed them to consolidate control and develop Islam with Persian Characteristics
islam sunni and shi ite shi ia
Islam:Sunni and Shi’ite (Shi’ia)
  • Split happened over the question of who was eligible to succeed Prophet Muhammad
  • Shi’ites: believe that legitimate rulership of the entire Islamic world could decend only through the heirs of the Prophet Muhammad
  • Shi’ites have a belief in the “hidden Imam” and he will return at the end of time and restore just and order
  • Shi’ites: all secular authority is ultimately illegitimate
islam sunni and shi ite shi ia12
Islam:Sunni and Shi’ite (Shi’ia)
  • Shi’ism:
    • Remains critical of monarchs and less sully reconciled with political order for its own sake
    • Extend a provisional legitimacy to rulers who let Islamic institutions flourish unmolested
    • Clergy is standing in for the hidden Imam
    • Hold a role like the priesthood in premodern Europe
    • Religious function is separate from the state
    • Clerics are most hostile towards power holders and enjoyed more independence
    • Enjoyed strong institutional base
islam sunni and shi ite shi ia13
Islam:Sunni and Shi’ite (Shi’ia)
  • Self organized, informal hierarchies that rested only on the esteem in which religious scholars held one another
  • Secure income from the voluntary religious tax
  • Refused to make peace with secular authorities
  • Religion and politics flows into one another: comprehensive Islamic society
  • Untainted by the prevailing injustice
  • No sense that some spheres of life lay outside of religion
western penetration
Western Penetration
  • Western cultural, economic, and colonial penetration
  • 1722: Afghan invaders end Safavid rule
  • British and Russia dominance in Persia
    • Semi-colonial status: political and economic dependent on imperial designs
    • 1890 treaty by British= a monopoly over tobacco sales
western penetration15
Western Penetration
  • Western ideals of government- Christian Missionaries
  • 1906-1907 Constitutional Revolution
    • Est. 1st constitution
    • 1st elected parliament: Majlis
    • Two forces:
      • liberals who hated the monarchy/wanted western institutions, Muslim clerics who wanted a stronger role for Islam
      • Same combination will bring down the Shah in 1979
      • Two have turned against each other over the future of Iran
western penetration16
Western Penetration
  • Corrupt and weak monarchies led to democratic constitutions
  • New Shah in 1907 shuts down Majlis
    • Flees to Russia under protest
    • Returns in 1911 but is forced back
  • 1907 Anglo-Russian Treaty cut Persia in two
    • Russia in the North/Britain in South
  • WWI turns into a zone of contention and chaos
the first pahlavi
The First Pahlavi
  • 1925: Reza Khan seizes power
    • Crowned as Shah
    • Dynasty lasted from 1925-1979 (Pahlavi)
    • Told the World “call us by our real name: Iran”
    • Nazi connection
the first pahlavi18
The First Pahlavi
  • Wanted to modernize his country
    • Molded an Iranian army
    • European civil service
    • National bank
  • Replaced tradition and Islamic courts
    • Civil courts
    • Under western codes of justice
  • 1935 founded Iran’s 1st Western Style university
  • Economy grew
    • State supervision
    • Oil revenues

Reza Khan

the first pahlavi19
The First Pahlavi
  • Encouraged countrymen to adopt western dress
    • Asked women to stop wearing the veil
  • Kept press and Majlis obedient
  • Troublemakers died in jail
  • Reza Shah was a classic modernizing tyrant
the first pahlavi20
The First Pahlavi
  • WWII Iran was to strategic to leave alone
    • Major oil producer
    • Conduit for U.S. supplies to desperate Russia
    • Again Russia in the North and British in the south
      • Both agreed to clear out 6 months post war
      • Reza shah titled support to Germany in 1941
      • Reza Shah was exiled to South Africa and later died in 1944
      • Reza Shah turn control over to his Son: Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
the first pahlavi21
The First Pahlavi
  • WWII continued
    • Americans and British left in Iran in 1945
    • Soviets did not leave (mark the start of the Cold War)
      • Stalin claimed ethnic groups in the north had right to merge with the Azeris of north Iran
      • Refused to leave
      • Set up Communist Azeri and Jurdish govt. in the north
      • 1946: President Truman delivered some harsh words, Iran’s PM promised Stalin an oil deal, Stalin withdraws
      • Majlis concealed the deal
the last pahlavi
The Last Pahlavi
  • 20th century was determined by Oil
    • Who should own and profit from Iran’s oil reserves?
  • Oil deposits discovered in 1908
    • Under British concession
    • Anglo-Persian (Iranian) Oil Company
the last pahlavi23
The Last Pahlavi
  • Persia received little from oil deal
    • Persians hated the rich foreign company
    • Especially an oil company who wrote their own rules
    • 1932 Reza Shah ended the lopsided concession
      • Forced the AIOC to pay higher royalties
the last pahlavi24
The Last Pahlavi
  • AIOC:
    • 1950’s Iranians rallied around Prime Minster Muhammad Mossadegh
    • Nationalized the AIOC
  • Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi flees the country in 1953
the last pahlavi25
The Last Pahlavi
  • British urged Washington to do something
    • US had the CIA destabilize the Tehran government
      • With $1million dollars Kermit Roosevelt hires a mob
      • Mossadegh was out
      • Shah was restored
      • U.S. wins cold war battle
the last pahlavi26
The Last Pahlavi
  • Shah Muhammad Reza
    • Modernizing tyrant
    • “White Revolution” from above
    • Excellent relations with United States
    • Shah was U.S. pillar of stability in the Persian Gulf
    • U.S. was source of
      • Money, technology, and military hardware
    • Iranian students came to U.S.
    • American Businessmen surged into Iran
the last pahlavi27
The Last Pahlavi
  • U.S. was too close the shah; supported by us
  • Shah was
    • Western-educated, Anit-communist, involved in rapid modernization
    • Iranian unrest went unnoticed
  • Under Nixon: sold them arms
    • Iran and Shah = two different things
    • Backing of the Shah alienated Iranians
    • Ignored how the Shah ruled:
      • Ruled by dreaded secret police: SAVAK
      • Tyrant was a tyrant
    • Worried about communism in north ignored the possible revolution from within
the last pahlavi28
The Last Pahlavi
  • Revenue from oil:
    • 1963-64: $555 million
    • 1975-76: $20 Billion
  • Government Revenue
    • 1948 = 11%
    • 1960 = 41%
    • 1974-75 = 84%
  • 45% of GDP and 89% of foreign export receipts
  • GDP grew from 8% to 30%
  • GNP grew from $17.3 billion to est. $54.6 billion
    • Highest GNP in the “Third World”
the last pahlavi30
The Last Pahlavi
  • Rentier state: a state that derives a substantial portion of revenue on a regular basis from payments by foreign concerns in the form of rent
  • Rentier economy: heavily supported by state expenditure while the state itself continuously receives rent from abroad.
the last pahlavi31
The Last Pahlavi
  • State no longer had to rely on agriculture
  • Fast paced modernization process
    • Transformed Iranian economy from one based agriculture to one-product economy based on oil
    • Adopted substitution industrialization
      • Capital-intensive industries
      • Neglect small scale production and agriculture sector
the last pahlavi32
The Last Pahlavi
  • No attempt to create a dynamic and open political system
  • Slogan “Plenty of administration and no politics”
    • Created the Rastakhiz (Resurgence) Party
      • 1975: Mass party
      • Entire Iranian population and encouraged everyone to join
    • Closed to opposition:
      • Subjected to harassment, imprisonment, and torture
    • Failed to realize the deprivation in terms of political participation
  • Caused the gradual erosion of the bonds linking state and civil society
the last pahlavi33
The Last Pahlavi
  • What ended Shah rule
    • Too much money
    • 1973 boosted oil prices and took over oil extraction from foreign companies
    • Shah leading mover of OPEC
    • Oil prices quadrupled
    • Oil Revenues went for the “greater glory” of Iran and its army: not the people
the last pahlavi34
The Last Pahlavi
  • New wealth caused great disruption
  • Shah promoted education
    • Saw Shah for what he was a tyrant
  • Corruption grew/people turned to the Mosque
  • Shah undermined the traditional culture values of Islam
    • Seized land from religious foundations
    • Influx of American culture: alcohol and sex
    • Military expenditures was a waste of money
    • Economic growth hastens revolution
the last pahlavi35
The Last Pahlavi
  • Ayatollah Khomeini:
    • Criticized the Shah
    • Exiled to Iraq in 1964
    • Forced to leave Iraq in 1978
    • Live in Paris suburb
      • Recorded messages that were telephoned to cassette recorders in Iran
      • Bypassed Shahs control of the media
    • Helped bring him down
the last pahlavi36
The Last Pahlavi
  • Things come to a head in 1970’s
  • Shah had made Iran a Debtor nation
  • Jimmy Carter makes human rights a foreign policy goal
  • Shah dictatorship comes under U.S. criticism
  • 1977 Carter and Shah had to retreat into White House
  • 1978 Shah facing huge demonstrations and dying of cancer
  • Shah mat “the king is trapped”