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IRAN. History of Iran/Western Relations. History of Iranian Relations with Western Nations. Today there are no formal diplomatic relations between Iran and The US Do not exchange ambassadors -Iran maintains an interests section at the

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  1. IRAN

  2. History of Iran/Western Relations

  3. History of Iranian Relations with Western Nations • Today there are no formal diplomatic relations between Iran and The US • Do not exchange ambassadors -Iran maintains an interests section at the Pakistani embassy in Washington D.C -US maintains an interests section at the Swiss embassy in Tehran

  4. The Beginning • Relations between the two nations began in the mid nineteenth century • The US was seen as a trustworthy Western power • Arthur Millspaugh and Morgan Shuster appointed treasurers-general by the Shahs • During World War II Iran was invaded by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union -US allies • US relations continued to be positive after the war until the government of Mohammad Mossadeq -Overthrown by a Coup organized partially by CIA

  5. The Coup • 1953-Prime Min Mohammed Mossadeq was overthrown by CIA organized coup • Iranians argue the 1953 coup and US support for the shah were responsible for the shah's arbitrary rule -Led to the deeply anti-American character of the 1979 revolution • “We like to forget the history, Iranians don't. In 1953, The United States and Britain overthrew the parliamentary government of Iran and installed a brutal dictator. In 1979, the population overthrew the dictator. And since then the United States has been essentially torturing Iran: First tried the military coup and then supported Saddam Hussein during Iraq’s invasion of Iran which killed hundreds of thousands of people and after that United States started imposing harsh sanctions on Iran. -Noam Chomsky, The Real News (November 2007)

  6. Hostility • Hostility begins after the 1979 Iranian Revolution • US fears that Iran is developing nuclear weapons shortly after the Revolution • 1995-the United States starts an embargo on trade with Iran • US District court judge says that the Iran was responsible for the 1983 attack on US Embassy • US Fed court finds Khobar Towers bombing was authorized by Ali Khomeini -Ayatollah of Iran • United States attack of 1988 -United States launched Operation Praying Mantis against Iran -Largest American naval combat operation since World War II

  7. Iranian Nuclear Program • Since 2003 the US has alleged that Iran has a program to develop nuclear weapons • Iran says that its nuclear program is only to generate electricity • Both US and Iran are members of NPT -US and other countries in violation for not disarming -Iran in violation for not reporting nuclear material to IAEA • March 8 2006 -US and European countries call on Security Council of UN to act against Iran

  8. Strait of Hormuz • Jan 3, 2012 -"We recommend to the American warship that passed through the Strait of Hormuz and went to Gulf of Oman not to return to the Persian Gulf" • After threat: U.S. aircraft carrier goes through Strait of Hormuz without incident -USS Abraham Lincoln -Joined by British and French ships, showing international support

  9. History Of Iranian Nuclear Program

  10. Brief Iran Nuclear Program History • Atoms for Peace program • Iranian Revolution • Iran – Iraq war • Iran Program 2000 – present • In 2003 President Mohammad Khatami announcement of building sophisticated facilities at Natanz and other places • EU-3 • Pushing Iran to sign the Additional Protocols • Paris Agreement • In 2006 Iran reduces inspection rights of IAEA • Sanctions

  11. Key Players

  12. MahmoudAhmadinejad • Sixth Iranian President • Rose to power in 2005 • Staunch opponent of US and Israel • Hard stance on belief that Iran should possess nuclear weapons

  13. Akbar Hasemi Rafsanjani • Two time Iranian president • Decided to revive nuclear program in 1980’s • Lost to Ahmadinejad in 2005 election • Seeks to cooperate with UN regarding nuclear program

  14. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei • Lost 2009 election to Ahmadinejad • Rarely speaks about nuclear program • When he does, he disagrees with Ahmadinejad’s stance, calling it costly

  15. President Barack Obama • US President • Has called the idea of Iran possessing nuclear weapons unacceptable • Specifically opposed to Iran’s enrichment of uranium • Has left all options on the table as a response to potential Iranian nuclear development

  16. Game Theory

  17. Game Model Values: -100 to 100

  18. Cell #1 Iran Nuclear Develop – US does Invade • United States: 75 • Gains better relations with world community • Closer to goal of ending threats of Nuclear Weapons world wide • Iran: -10 • Economic Loss • Population Loss

  19. Cell #2 Iran Nuclear Development – US does not Invade • United States: -25 • Loss of soft power • Iran: 10 • Gains hard power • More potential threat to Israel and rest of world

  20. Cell #3 Iran has No Nuclear Development – US does Invade • United States: -50 • Worldly image damaged • Economic loss • Iran -5 • Loss of Bargaining power • Loss of creditability as a threat to other countries

  21. Cell #4 Iran has No Nuclear Development – US does not Invade • United States: 0 • No loss of lives • Closer to goal of eliminating nuclear weapons world wide • Iran: 0 • The unknown to the rest of the world of being a potential nuclear threat

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