Breeding pattern of Emperor Penguin • They breed at the beginning of winter inland (about 40km) of the ice • The temperatures can drop as low as minus 60ºc • The single egg is transferred quickly to the male who balances the egg on his feet and covers it with a special brood pouch • The male then incubates the egg over the following 9 weeks
Brood Pouch Brood pouch
Breeding pattern of the Emperor Penguin • The female leaves the male and returns to the sea to feed for 9 weeks • She feeds on small fish • By the time the female returns the chick has hatched • The female feeds the chick on regurgitated food
Breeding pattern of the Emperor Penguin • The male then leaves to feed in the sea • He returns 7 weeks later • Now both parents care for the chick • By the time the chick is 6 months old it is able to go to sea for the first time and feed for itself • The pack ice has melted by this time and so the chick does not have to trek far to get to the sea. It is for this reason that the parents breed in the winter
Adaptations of the Emperor Penguin to live in extreme climate • Physical adaptations? • Behavioural adaptation? • Penguins are seen to form large close packed circles in which the penguins huddle closely • Penguins are seen to rotate within the huddle taking turns to be in the centre and on the outside • Does this behaviour help the penguin to adapt to the extreme cold?
Experiment • Aim to see whether the rate of cooling differs for boiling tubes of warm water inside a circle and on the outside of a circle
Measure temperature of the boiling tube in centre Experiment
Experiment Measure temperature of a boiling tube in outer circle
Measure temperature of a boiling tube on its own Experiment
Method • Take 7 boiling tubes and fill each with warm water (37ºc) using a jug • Place the temperature probe connected to the data logger in the centre boiling tube • Take the temperature every 1 min for 15 minutes
Method cont… • Simultaneously record from one of the boiling tubes in the outer circle using a second probe • Finally, repeat using one boiling tube standing on its own • Display the collected data as a line graph on the computer • Display all three line graphs on one graph so that the results can be seen at once
Conclusion • Does the arrangement of boiling tubes affect the rate of cooling? • Do the results help to explain the huddling behaviour in penguins?
Huddling behaviour- • http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/species/Emperor_Penguin
Poster • Construct a large poster on which you will present the results of your experiments • The poster will be entitled ‘Why do Emperer Penguins hudddle?’ Include ALL the adaptations that the penguin has to enable it to survive in the cold climate • The poster should have visual impact and the information must be easily absorbed
Lifestyle of the Emperor Penguin • http://www.siec.k12.in.us/west/proj/penguins/emperor.html