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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed). Chapter 12 Motivation James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers. Motivation. Motivation a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Instinct complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.

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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

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  1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 12 Motivation James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

  2. Motivation • Motivation • a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior • Instinct • complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

  3. Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Need (e.g., for food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst) Motivation • Drive-Reduction Theory • the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

  4. Motivation • Homeostasis • tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state • regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level • Incentive • a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

  5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential • begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied • then higher-level safety needs become active • then psychological needs become active Esteem needs Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst

  6. Motivation-Hunger • Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger

  7. Motivation-Hunger • Glucose • the form of sugar that circulates in the blood • provides the major source of energy for body tissues • when its level is low, we feel hunger

  8. Motivation-Hunger • Set Point • the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set • when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight • Basal Metabolic Rate • body’s base rate of energy expenditure

  9. Motivation-Hunger • The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions

  10. Motivation-Hunger

  11. Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa • when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (>15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve • usually an adolescent female • Bulimia Nervosa • disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

  12. Women’s Body Images

  13. Sexual Motivation • Sex • a physiologically based motive, like hunger, but it is more affected by learning and values • Sexual Response Cycle • the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson • excitement • plateau • orgasm • resolution

  14. Sexual Motivation • Refractory Period • resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm • Estrogen • a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males

  15. Forces Affecting Sexual Motivation

  16. Sexual Motivation • Same drives, different attitudes

  17. Sexual Motivation • Births to unwed parents

  18. Sexual Motivation • Sexual Orientation • an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own gender (homosexual orientation) or the other gender (heterosexual orientation)

  19. Sexual Motivation

  20. Sexual Motivation

  21. Motivation at Work • Flow • a completely, involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills • Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology • the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

  22. Motivation at Work • Personnel Psychology • sub-field of I-O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development • Organizational Psychology • Sub-field of I-O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

  23. Motivation at Work

  24. Motivation at Work • Structured Interview • process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants • rated on established scales • Achievement Motivation • a desire for significant accomplishment • for mastery of things, people, or ideas • for attaining a high standard

  25. Motivation at Work • Personnel psychologists’ tasks

  26. Motivation at Work • 360-degree feedback

  27. Motivation at Work • On the right path

  28. Motivation • Task Leadership • goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals • Social Leadership • group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

  29. Motivation • Theory X • assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money • workers should be directed from above • Theory Y • assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity

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