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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 11 Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers Origins of Intelligence Testing Intelligence Test a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores

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myers psychology 7th ed
Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

Chapter 11

Intelligence

James A. McCubbin, PhD

Clemson University

Worth Publishers

origins of intelligence testing
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Intelligence Test
    • a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores
origins of intelligence testing3
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Mental Age
    • a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet
    • chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
    • child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8
origins of intelligence testing4
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Stanford-Binet
    • the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test
      • revised by Terman at Stanford University
origins of intelligence testing5
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
    • defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
      • IQ = ma/ca x 100)
    • on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
what is intelligence
What is Intelligence?
  • Intelligence
    • ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
what is intelligence7
What is Intelligence?
  • Factor Analysis
    • statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test
    • used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score
  • General Intelligence(g)
    • factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities
    • measured by every task on an intelligence test
are there multiple intelligences
Are There Multiple Intelligences?
  • Savant Syndrome
    • condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill
      • computation
      • drawing
are there multiple intelligences9
Are There Multiple Intelligences?
  • Social Intelligence
    • the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully
  • Emotional Intelligence
    • ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
intelligence and creativity
Intelligence and Creativity
  • Creativity
    • the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
      • expertise
      • imaginative thinking skills
      • venturesome personality
      • intrinsic motivation
      • creative environment
brain function and intelligence

Mask

Stimulus

Question: Long side on left or right?

Brain Function and Intelligence
  • People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests
assessing intelligence
Assessing Intelligence
  • Aptitude Test
    • a test designed to predict a person’s future performance
    • aptitude is the capacity to learn
  • Achievement Test
    • a test designed to assess what a person has learned
assessing intelligence13
Assessing Intelligence
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
    • most widely used intelligence test
    • subtests
      • verbal
      • performance (nonverbal)
assessing intelligence sample items from the wais

VERBAL

PERFORMANCE

Picture Completion

Picture Arrangement

Block Design

Object Assembly

Digit-Symbol Substitution

General Information

Similarities

Arithmetic Reasoning

Vocabulary

Comprehension

Digit Span

From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977

Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS
assessing intelligence15
Assessing Intelligence
  • Standardization
    • defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”
  • Normal Curve
    • the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
    • most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
assessing intelligence18
Assessing Intelligence
  • Reliability
    • the extent to which a test yields consistent results
    • assessed by consistency of scores on:
      • two halves of the test
      • alternate forms of the test
      • retesting
  • Validity
    • the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
assessing intelligence19
Assessing Intelligence
  • Content Validity
    • the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
      • driving test that samples driving tasks
  • Criterion
    • behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict
    • the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
assessing intelligence20
Assessing Intelligence
  • Predictive Validity
    • success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
    • assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
    • also called criterion-related validity
assessing intelligence21

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Greater correlation

over broad range

of body weights

Football linemen’s

success

Little corre-

lation within

restricted

range

180 250 290

Body weight in pounds

Assessing Intelligence
  • As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes
the dynamics of intelligence
The Dynamics of Intelligence
  • Mental Retardation
    • a condition of limited mental ability
    • indicated by an intelligence score below 70
    • produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life
    • varies from mild to profound
  • Down Syndrome
    • retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup
genetic influences
Genetic Influences
  • The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores
genetic influences25
Genetic Influences
  • Heritability
    • the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
    • variability depends on range of populations and environments studied
environmental influences
Environmental Influences
  • The Schooling Effect
group differences

Variation within group

Variation within group

Seeds

Poor soil

Fertile soil

Difference within group

Group Differences
  • Group differences and environmental impact
group differences29

Standard

Responses

Group Differences
  • The Mental Rotation Test

Which two of the other circles contain a configuration of blocks

identical to the one in the circle at the left?

group differences30
Group Differences
  • Stereotype Threat
    • A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype