Success on the AP Psychology Exam • Knowledge • Need to know the material of a typical Introduction to Psychology course at the college level. • Typical college course meets for 15 weeks, 3 times a week for 45 class hours.
Success on the AP Psychology Exam • Understanding of the AP Psychology Test • Knowing the basic elements of the AP Psychology test including: • Number of questions in the total test • Number of questions from each individual unit • Types of questions possible • How the questions are arraigned? • How is the test scored? • Penalty for guessing
Test Taking Strategies • General Tips for Test Taking • Multiple Choice Section • Free Response Questions
General Tips for Test Taking • Know how the test is graded • Multiple Choice • 2/3 of overall grade • 100 Points • Free Response • 1/3 of overall grade • 50 Points • 150 Total Points
AP Psych Test Part 1 • Know the structure of the test • Multiple Choice Section - 100 questions • A-E • Column format • Questions taken from every unit on a percentage basis
AP Psychology Exam Structure Methods, Approaches and History 2-4% Research Methods 6-8% Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10% Sensation and Perception 7-9% States of Consciousness 2-4% Learning 7-9% Cognition 8-10% Motivation and Emotion 7-9% Developmental Psychology 7-9% Personality 6-8% Testing and Individual Differences 5-7% Abnormal Psychology 7-9% Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7% Social Psychology 7-9%
General Tips for Test Taking • Know the structure of the test • Free Response Section - 2 questions • No choice • Multiple parts
Free Response Question 2009 #1 1. Dimitri and Linda are trying to learn a new routine to compete successfully in a dance competition. Give an example of how each of the following could affect their performance. Definitions without application do not score. • Extrinsic motivation • Punishment • Proactive interference • Endorphins • Vestibular system • Divergent thinking • Introversion
Free Response Question 2009 #2 2. James is in a driver’s education course preparing to take his driving test. The course includes both book work and driving on the road to prepare students for a written test and a road test. (a) Describe how each of the following might influence his ability to drive a car during the road test. Definitions without application do not score. • Cognitive map • Cerebellum • Observational learning • Human factors (b) Describe how each of the following are related to the results of the written test. Definitions without application do not score. • Reticular formation • Predictive validity • Semantic memory
General Tips for Test Taking Section I: Multiple Choice [ _____ - (1/4 X _____ )] X 1.000 = __________ Number CorrectNumber WrongMultiple-Choice Score(If less than zero, enter zero) Notes: If any questions are thrown out the 1.0 will change to reflect that change. 1999 – two questions 1.0204 2007 – one question 1.0101
General Tips for Test Taking Section II: Free Response (Assumes two 8 point and 8 point question) (3.1250 X _______) + (2.500 X ________ ) = _____ Question 1 Question 2 Free Response (Out of 8) (Out of 10) Score Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many points each question in a given year is worth.
General Tips for Test Taking Section III: Composite Score ______________ + ___________ = _______________ Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score Score Score Section IV: Final Score
General Tips for Test Taking Section I: Multiple Choice [ _____ - (1/4 X _____ )] X 1.000 = __________ Number CorrectNumber WrongMultiple-Choice Score(If less than zero, enter zero) Notes: If any questions are thrown out the 1.0 will change to reflect that change. 26 67.5 74 6.5
General Tips for Test Taking Section III: Composite Score ______________ + ___________ = _______________ Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score Score Score Section IV: Final Score 67.5
General Tips for Test Taking Section II: Free Response (Assumes two 8 point and 8 point question) (3.1250 X _______) + (2.500 X ________ ) = _____ Question 1 Question 2 Free Response (Out of 8) (Out of 10) Score Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many points each question in a given year is worth. 15 18.75 33.75 6 6
General Tips for Test Taking Section III: Composite Score ______________ + ___________ = _______________ Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score Score Score 67.5 33.75 101.25 Section IV: Final Score (20o4 exam) AP Grade Composite Score Range 5 103 - 150 4 84 - 102 3 65 - 83 2 45 - 64 1 0 - 44
Psychology: The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings….) At all levels, psychologists examine how we process information--how we organize, interpret, store, and use it.
SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY Prologue
The Roots • Psychology • The scientific study of: • Behavior & Mental processes Physiology Bodily functions that cause certain behavior i.e. lack of sleep causes stress and depression Philosophy The way we perceive ourselves and our thoughts and the world around us
Historical Origins of ψ from Philosophy • Rene Descartes • Beliefs • Rationalism: • True knowledge comes through reasoning • We gain knowledge from what we experience • “Cogito, ergo sum” “I think, therefore I am” • Nativism: • Heredity provides individuals with inborn knowledge and abilities and we use this to reason • Dualism • The mind and the body are two separate entities that work together to form experiences
Historical Origins of ψ from Philosophy • John Locke • Beliefs • Tabula rasa • We are born as a blank slate, everything we know is learned • This is in direct contrast to the rationalist Descartes
Wave One: Structuralism vs. FunctionalismKickin it old school William James 1890 US “Principles of Psychology” Wilhelm Wundt 1879 Germany
Historical Schools STRUCTURALISM: using introspection, the systematic examination by individuals of their own thoughts and feelings about specific sensory experiences. Emphasized the structure of the mind and behavior. Edward Titchener: (Cornell University) emphasized the “what” of mental illness rather than “why” or “how” of thinking. The major opponent to Stucturalism was…… FUNCTIONALISM: gives primary importance to learned habits that enable organisms to adapt to their environment and to function effectively. “What is the function or purpose of any behavioral act?” John Dewey: provided impetus for progressive education. William James: study of consciousness was not limited to elements, contents, and structures. ….the mind haS an ongoing relationship with the environment. He published “Principles of Psychology” 1890
GESTALTISM: The whole is greater than the sum of its’ parts. Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, Kurt Koffka, and Kurt Lewin BIOLOGICAL: the causes of behavior in the genes, the brain, the nervous system, and endocrine system ………the role of specific brain systems in aggression by stimulating different regions and then recording any destructive actions that are elicited.
BEHAVIORISM: emphasizes observable behaviorrather than inner mental experiences……… emphasizes the role of environment as the cause of behavior. (From our environment, we learn to do certain behaviors and learn not to do others.) Sometimes called learning theory. ……….use of positive reinforcement rather than punishment B. F. Skinner: radical behaviorism acknowledged that evolution provided each species with a repertory of behaviors. John B.Watson: observable behavior was important; stated the chief goal of psychology was the prediction and control of behavior. Ivan Pavlov: classical conditioning.
NEUROPHYSIOLOGY: An approach which emphasizes that all actions, feelings, and thoughts are associated with bodily events such as the firing of nerve cells in the brain or the release of hormones COGNITIVE: refers to mental activity including thinking, remembering, learning and using language. Behavior is only partly determined by preceding environmental events and past behavioral consequences. “People act because they think.” David Ausubel: attempted to explain meaningful verbal learning as a phenomenon of consciousness rather than of behavior…. Created the “advance organizer.” Jean Piaget: identified stages of cognitive development.
PSYCHOANALYSIS: An approach that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts. A psychodynamic psychologist will analyze aggression as a reaction to frustrations caused by barriers to pleasure, such as unjust authority. They view aggression as an adult’s displacement of hostility originally felt as a child against his or her parents. Sigmund Freud: developed from his work with mentally disturbed patients; views a person as being pushed and pulled by complex network of inner and outer forces. Developed stages of life to age 12, claiming that an individual would change little after that point. Erik Erikson: expanded on Freud’s stages of life to include 8 stages into later adulthood. Carl Jung: challenged his mentor Freud with the hypothesis that adulthood, not childhood, represents the most significant phase of psychology.
EVOLUTIONARY: Seeks to connect contemporary psychology to a central idea of the life sciences, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Researchers focus on the environmental conditions in which the human brain evolved. Those organisms best suited to their environments will flourish and pass on genes more successfully than those with poorer adaptations. CULTURAL: Study cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior. Researchers may compare the prevalence of eating disorders for white Americans vs. African American teenagers within the U.S. Cultural psychologists study the perceptions of the world as affected by culture, the languages one speaks and how it affects ones experience of the world, or how does culture affect the way children develop toward adulthood.
HUMANISM: emphasizes personal growth, self-esteem, and the achievement of human potential more than the scientific understanding, prediction, and control of behavior. Human beings are not driven by the powerful, instinctive forces postulated by Freudians or manipulated by environments. ………….look for personal values and social conditions that foster self-limiting, aggressive perspectives instead of growth-enhancing, shared experiences. Abraham Maslow: developed the Hierarchy of Needs, stating that each level of needs must be satisfied before one moves onto the next.
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s Subfields • Basic Research • Biological psychologists explore the links between brain and mind • Developmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tomb • Cognitive psychologists study how we perceive, think, and solve problems • Personality psychologists investigate our persistent traits • Social psychologists explore how we view and affect one another
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychiatry • A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders • Practiced by physicians who sometimes use medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy
PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH Chapter 1
Research Methods Advantages VS Disadvantages
Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses Five Steps of the Scientific Method: Developing a hypothesis 2) Performing a controlled test 3) Gathering objective data 4) Analyzing the result/Survival of Hypothesis (refine hypothesis and retest) 5) Publishing, criticizing and replicating the results
Types of ResearchExperimental Method Components of the Research Process: 1) Developing a research question 2) Surveying the literature 3) Hypothesis 4) Independent variable 5) Dependent variable 6) Extraneous variables 7) Controls 8) Sampling/Subjects (random assignment to groups) 9) Procedure 10) Results/Statistics 11) Discussion 12) New Hypothesis
The Experiment • Experiments: • Identify cause-and-effect relationships, we conduct experiments • 1) Directly vary a condition you might think affects behavior • 2) Create two or more groups of subjects, alike in all ways except the condition you are varying • 3)Record whether varying the condition has any effect on behavior
Fig. 1.11 Elements of a simple psychological experiment to assess the effects of music during study on test scores. Table of Contents Exit
Research Strategies--Step 1Developing a Hypothesis Empirical Investigation *collecting objective information firsthand by making careful measurements based on direct experience. Theory *an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations Hypothesis *a testable prediction *often implied by a theory *MUST be defined operationally
Research Strategies--Step 1Developing a Hypothesis Operational Definition *a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables *REQUIRED to make your suspicion testable *You MUST describe: independent variables dependent variable list of procedures *Example- *intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
Research Strategies--Step 2Performing a Controlled Test Independent Variable *the experimental factor that is manipulated *the variable whose effect is being studied Think of the independent variable as a condition that the experimenter changes INDEPENDENTLYof all the other controlled experimental conditions.
Research Strategies--Step 3 Gathering Objective Data Dependent Variable *the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable *in psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process, or test. The responses of the participants in an experiment DEPEND directly on the conditions to which they have been exposed. **the dependent variable must also be given an operational definition.
Beware ofConfounding Variables If I wanted to prove that smoking causes heart issues, what are some confounding variables? • The object of an experiment is to prove that A causes B. • A confounding variable is anything that could cause change in B, that is not A. Lifestyle and family history may also effect the heart.
Other Confounding Variables • Placebo effect • Placebo: • A fake pill (sugar) or injection (saline) • Placebo Effect: • Changes in behavior that result from belief that one has ingested a drug • Placebos alter our expectations about our own emotional and physical reactions • These expectancies then influence bodily activities • Relieve pain by getting pituitary to release endorphins • Also gain some effect through learning
Experimenter Bias • Another confounding variable. • Not a conscious act. • Double-Blind Procedure.
Controlling confounding variables • Single Blind Experiment: • Only the subjects have no idea whether they get real treatment or placebo • Double Blind Experiment: • The subjects AND the experimenters have no idea whether the subjects get real treatment or placebo • Best type of experiment if properly set up • Alleviates Experimenter bias refers to expectations that influence a participant’s behavior. Table of Contents Exit
Limiting Confounding Variables • Validity • Ensures that a researcher's experiment design closely follows the principle of cause and effect • The researcher can eliminate almost all of the potential confounding variables and set up strong controls to isolate other factors. • Reliability • refers to the test’s consistency among different administrations. • If the test is reliable, the scores that each student receives on the first administration should be similar to the scores on the second
Research Strategies--Step 5Publishing, Criticizing, Replicating the Results Critics will look for flaws in the research. REPLICATION is one way to see if one would get the same results. Replication *repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other subjects and circumstances *usually with different subjects in different situations