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A History of Psychology . Chapter 4: The New Psychology. The founding father of modern psychology. Who? Gustav Fechner (1801-1887) Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) William James (1842-1910). Fechner : originator 1 st time demonstrated how to make precise measurements of mental quantities

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a history of psychology

A History of Psychology

Chapter 4:

The New Psychology

the founding father of modern psychology
The founding father of modern psychology
  • Who?
    • Gustav Fechner (1801-1887)
    • Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
    • William James (1842-1910)
the founding father of modern psychology3
Fechner: originator

1st time demonstrated how to make precise measurements of mental quantities

His goal was to understand the relationship between the mental and material world.

The founding father of modern psychology

Gustav Fechner

the founding father of modern psychology4
Wundt: Founder & promoter

Established the world’s 1st experimental psychology laboratory, edited the 1st Journal, began experimental psychology as science

His goal was to promote psychology as an independent science

The founding father of modern psychology

Wilhelm Wundt

the founding father of modern psychology5
William James

First true American psychologist

Turn psychology from Europe to the U.S.

The founding father of modern psychology

William James

wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 his life
1. Childhood was lonely, 1st grades in school were poor, always disliked school

2. Did not get along with classmates, ridiculed by teachers

3. Decided to be a physician to work in science and make a living

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)-----His life

Wilhelm Wundt

wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 his life7
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)-----His life
  • 4. Disliked medicine, switched to physiology
    • Student of Johannes Muller
    • Complete his doctorate in 1855 at U. of Heidelberg
    • Lab assistant to Hermann Helmholtz
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 his life8
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)-----His life
  • 5. While working in physiology, he thought the study of psychology as an independent, experimental, and scientific discipline.
  • 6. 1858-1862: Contributions to the Theory of Sensory Perception

a. described his own original experiments

b. offered methods for psychology

c. first used the term of “experimental psychology”

wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 his life9
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)-----His life
  • 7. 1863: Lectures on the Minds of Men and Animals.
  • A study of Reaction Time
  • Influence cognitive science, dominate experimental psychology in 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s

Experiment on Reaction time

wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 his life10
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)-----His life
  • 8. Offered the first formal course on “physiological psychology”
    • “physiological” = “experimental”
  • 9. Productivity
    • 54,000pages (1853-1920), an output of 2.2 pages per day
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 his life11
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)-----His life
  • 10. 1873-1874: Principles of Physiological Psychology

a. his masterpiece

b. established psychology as an independent laboratory science

c. became the record of psychology research: six editions

wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the leipzig years
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)----The Leipzig years
  • 1. Professor of philosophy at Leipzig: 1875-1920
  • 2. First psychology lab: model for psychology labs everywhere
  • 3. First journal for psychology research
    • a. 1881: Journal of Philosophical Studies
    • b. 1906: new title-Journal of Psychological Studies
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the leipzig years13
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)----The Leipzig years
  • 4. Trained first generation of experimental psychologists
  • 5. Trained several Americans and most of them returned to the US to begin laboratories of their own.
  • 6. Also, his students established laboratories in Italy, Russian, and Japan.
  • 7. He was not himself a laboratory worker even though his faith in laboratory research.
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 cultural psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)----Cultural psychology
  • 1. 1880-1891: wrote on ethics, logic, systematic philosophy
  • 2. 1900: Cultural Psychology
    • The creation of social psychology
  • 3. Concerned with stages of human mental development
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 cultural psychology15
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)----Cultural psychology
  • 4. Focus on language, art myths, social, customs, law, and morals.
  • 5. Divided psychology in two:
    • Experimental Psychology
    • Social Psychology
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 cultural psychology16
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)----Cultural psychology
  • 6. Experimental psychology
    • Simpler mental function such as sensation and perception
    • Must be studied through experimental/laboratory methods.
  • 7. Non-experimental methods
    • higher mental processes such as learning and memory
    • cannot be studies experimentally
    • can be studied using methods of sociology anthropology, social psychology
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 cultural psychology17
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)----Cultural psychology
  • 8. Citations:
    • Cultural Psychology: < 4%
    • Principles of Physiological Psychology: >61%
  • 9. Reasons for the lack interest in cultural psychology
    • Little need to pay attention to developments from Europe
    • Less concern to cultural issues
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the study of conscious experience
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The study of conscious experience
  • 1. Wundt adapted scientific methods (in nature science) to study psychology
  • 2.Subject matter in Wundt psychology: consciousness
    • studied by the methods of analysis or reduction
    • reduction to its elements
    • active in organizing its contents
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the study of conscious experience19
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The study of conscious experience
  • 3. Voluntarism:
    • The mind has the capacity to organize mental contents into higher-level through process.
    • emphasized the process, not the elements
    • however, recognized the elements
    • Provide only a beginning to understanding psychological processes.
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the study of conscious experience20
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The study of conscious experience
  • 4. Mediate experience:
    • Mediate experience provides information about something other than the elements of that experience
    • E.g., The flower is red; I have a toothache
  • 5. Immediate experience:
    • unbiased by any personal interpretations
    • Our experience of redness or our feeling of discomfort from a toothache
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the study of conscious experience21
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The study of conscious experience
  • 6. Analyze the mind into its elements and its component parts like nature science (chemical elements)
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the method of introspection
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The method of introspection
  • 1. The method of a scientific psychology requires observation of conscious experience
  • 2. Method of observation: Introspection:
    • is the examination of one’s own mental state, “internal perception”, and report on personal thoughts or feelings
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the method of introspection23
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The method of introspection
  • 4. Its use is derived from physics and physiology
    • Fechner: subjects compared two weights and reported whether one is heavier, lighter, or equal. They were introspecting and reporting on their conscious experiences.
  • 3. Required subjects to complete 10,000 introspective observation before ready to be Wundt’s subjects.
  • 4. Accurate observation and replication
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the method of introspection24
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The method of introspection
  • 5. Wundt’s four rules and conditions
    • Observers must be able to determine when the process is to be introduced
    • Observers must be in a sate of readiness
    • It must be possible to repeat the observation several times
    • It must be possible to vary the experimental conditions in terms of the controlled manipulation of the stimuli.
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the method of introspection25
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The method of introspection
  • 6. Required quantitative and objective measurement (e.g., reaction time), not qualitative introspection
  • 7. Used sophisticated equipment for objective measurement
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 elements of conscious experience
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---elements of conscious experience
  • 1. Wundt’s three goals for psychology
    • Analyze conscious processes into elements
    • Discover how elements are organized
    • Determine the laws of connection governing the organization of the elements
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 elements of conscious experience27
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---elements of conscious experience
  • 2. Two elements of conscious experience:
    • Sensations
    • Feelings
    • Both are immediate experience
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 elements of conscious experience28
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---elements of conscious experience
  • 3. Tridimensioal theory of feelings
    • From Wundt’s own experiences as a subject.
    • Wundt concluded three independent dimensions of feelings:
      • pleasure/displeasure
      • tension/relaxation
      • excitement/depression
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 organizing the elements of conscious experience
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---Organizing the elements of conscious experience
  • 1. Reality: Whole: tree
  • 2. Lab: report elements of conscious experience: color, shape, or brightness
  • 3. Doctrine of apperception
    • The process of organizing mental elements into a whole.
    • is a creative synthesis.
    • Impacted Gestalt psychology (the whole is different from the sum of its parts)
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the fate of wundt s psychology in germany
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The fate of Wundt’s psychology in Germany
  • 1. 1941: psychology: subspecialty in philosophy
  • 2. Some against to separate psychology and philosophy
  • 3. Lack of funds for a separate discipline
    • Government officials did not see the practical value in psychology and were hesitant to provide enough financial support
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 the fate of wundt s psychology in germany31
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---The fate of Wundt’s psychology in Germany
  • 4. Wundt’s psychology, focusing on organizing the elements of consciousness, was not appropriate for solving real-world problems.
  • 5. Slow develop as a distinct science in Germany
  • 6. 1910: 4 psychologists

1925: 25 psychologists

14 of 23 universities: separate psychology department

wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 criticisms of wundtian psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---Criticisms of Wundtian psychology
  • 1. Criticisms of method of introspection
    • Not objective
  • 2. Focus on conscious experience and avoid soul
wilhelm wundt 1832 1920 criticisms of wundtian psychology33
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)---Criticisms of Wundtian psychology
  • 3. Not applicable to practical problems
  • 4. Decline of Wundt’s system
    • his personal opinions regarding World War I Wundtian research and writing disappeared in English-speaking world.
    • Wundt’s lab was destroyed during WWII
    • overshadowed by Gestalt psychology (in Germany) and psychoanalysis (in Austria)
other developments in german psychology
Other Developments in German Psychology
  • Others in England:
    • Charles Darwin: a theory of evolution
    • Francis Galton: a psychology of individual differences
  • Others in Germany
    • Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
    • Franz Brentano (1838-1917)
    • Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)
    • Oswald Kulpe (1862-1915)
others in german psychology hermann ebbinghaus 1850 1909
A. In general

1. Born in Germany in 1850

2. Impacted by Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics

3. using himself as the only subject

4. In 1880, taught at U. of Berlin; was not promoted there (lack of publication).

5. In 1894-1905, accepted a position at U. of Breslau. After 1905, moved to U. of Halle.

Others in German Psychology ---Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

Hermann

Ebbinghaus

others in german psychology hermann ebbinghaus 1850 190936
Others in German Psychology ---Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
  • B. Research on learning
    • 1. first to apply the experimental method to study higher mental processes (learning and memory)
    • (Wundt thought that higher mental processes is impossible to study experimentally)
    • 2. Study learning was to examine association
others in german psychology hermann ebbinghaus 1850 190937
Others in German Psychology ---Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
  • B. Research on learning
    • 3. Measuring memory: counting the number of trials and repetitions required to learn the material.
      • (Like Fechner, measuring sensations indirectly through by

measuring the stimulus intensity to produce a just noticeable difference in sensation)

    • 4. Recall: through the frequency of associations
    • 5. Provided quantification of learning, memory, recall, and forgetting
others in german psychology hermann ebbinghaus 1850 190938
Others in German Psychology ---Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
  • C. Research with nonsense syllables
  • 1. Nonsense syllables
    • a. meaningless material is 9 times harder to learn than meaningful material
    • b. found longer material requires more repetitions
others in german psychology hermann ebbinghaus 1850 190939
Others in German Psychology ---Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)

2. Most significant

a. influence of experimental conditions on human learning and memory.

b. quantitative analysis of the data

c. finding that time to learn is a function of the number of syllables

others in german psychology hermann ebbinghaus 1850 190940
Others in German Psychology ---Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
  • D. other contributions to psychology

1. 1890, founded the Journal of Psychology and Physiology of the Sense Organs

2. Emphasized relationship between psychology and physiology

3. Developed a sentence-completion test

others in german psychology hermann ebbinghaus 1850 190941
Others in German Psychology ---Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909)
  • D. other contributions to psychology

4. In 1920, The Principles of Psychology;

In 1908,A Summery of Psychology.

5. Many of his conclusion about learning and memoryremains valid now. He expanded the experimental psychology.

6. More influential than Wundt

others in german psychology franz brentano 1838 1917
A. Career

Was prepared to be a priest

1864, received his degree

1866, taught philosophy at U of Wurzburg

1874, published Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint and moved to U. of Vienna

Others in German Psychology ----Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

Franz Brentano

others in german psycholo franz brentano 1838 1917
Others in German Psycholo---Franz Brentano (1838-1917)
  • His students, Carl Stumpf, Sigmund Freud
  • Precursor of Gestalt and humanistic psychology
  • Shared Wundt’s goal: psychology as a science
  • 1874: Psychology From an Empirical Standpoint
    • in direct opposition to Wundt’s view
    • was empirical, not experimental
    • method was observation, not experimentation
    • did not reject experimentation
    • data are from observation and individual experience
others in german psychology franz brentano 1838 191744
B. Brentono: Act psychology

1. Rejected study of the content of conscious experience

2. subject matter: mental activity

3.experience as activity

Wundt: conscious experience

1. Accepted Study the content of conscious experience

2. Subject matter: Mental content

3. Experience as structure

Others in German Psychology---Franz Brentano (1838-1917)
others in german psychology franz brentano 1838 191745
Others in German Psychology---Franz Brentano (1838-1917)

4. Requires new methods

a. acts are not accessible through introspection

b. study of mental acts requires empirical observation

5. Relied on systematic observation

6. Two methods: through memory and imagination

others in german psychology carl stumpf 1848 1936
A. In general

1. Born in medical family

2. Interested in music

3. Studied with Brentano and interested in philosophy and science

4. 1868, received his degree; 1894, taught at U. of Berlin

5. Wundt’s major rival

Others in German Psychology ----Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)

Carl Stumpf

others in german psychology carl stumpf 1848 193647
Others in German Psychology ----Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)

B. Research

1. Perception of space

2. 1883, 1890: Psychology of Tone

a. second only to Helmholtz in work on acoustics

b. pioneer in psychological study of music

others in german psychology carl stumpf 1848 193648
Others in German Psychology ----Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)
  • C. Phenomenology
    • 1. Argued primary data for psychology are phenomena
    • 2. Phenomenology:
      • Knowledge based on unbiased description of immediate description of immediate experience at it occurs, not analyzed or reduced to elements.
others in german psychology carl stumpf 1848 193649
Others in German Psychology ----Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)
  • 3. Analysis of experience into elements makes that experience artificial and no longer nature
  • 4. Bitter debate with Wundt re: introspection of tones

a. highly trained lab observers (Wundt)

b. expert musicians (Stumpf)

others in german psychology carl stumpf 1848 193650
Others in German Psychology ----Carl Stumpf (1848-1936)
  • D. Other works
    • 1. Founded Berlin Association for Child Psychology
    • 2. Established center of music collection from the world
    • 3. Published a theory of emotions, his idea relevant to contemporary cognitive theory of emotion
others in german psychology oswald kulpe 1862 1915
A. In general

1. Student and colleague of Wundt

2. “Kind mother” “science as my bride”

3. 1893: Outline of Psychology

a. Psychology is the science of the facts of experience

b. as dependent on the experiencing person

Others in German Psychology ---Oswald Kulpe (1862-1915)

Oswald Kuiilpe

others in german psychology oswald kulpe 1862 191552
Kulpe

1. Thought processes should be studied experimentally

2. Developed systematic experimental introspection

a. involved performance of a complex task

b. subjects gave retrospective report of the cognitive processes experienced during the task

Wundt

1. Impossible to experimentally study about high mental process

2. Introspection

Others in German Psychology ---Oswald Kulpe (1862-1915)
  • B. Kulpe’s differences with Wundt
others in german psychology oswald kulpe 1862 191553
Kulpe

3. Subjective & qualitative

4. Detail

5. Describe the complex mental operations

Wundt

3. Objective & quantitative

4. Not detail

5. Reaction time or judgment of weights

Others in German Psychology ---Oswald Kulpe (1862-1915)

B. Kulpe’s differences with Wundt

others in german psychology oswald kulpe 1862 191554
Kulpe

6. Experimenter:

active role

Directly ask questions of the observers to facilitate the details of their reactions

Wundt

6. Experimenter:

Limited to presenting the stimulus material and recording results

Not intrude on the actual observations

Others in German Psychology ---Oswald Kulpe (1862-1915)

B. Kulpe’s differences with Wundt

others in german psychology oswald kulpe 1862 191555
Kulpe

Thought can occurwithout any sensory or imaginal content

Wundt

All experience is composed of sensations and images

Others in German Psychology ---Oswald Kulpe (1862-1915)

C. imageless thought