Training Effect – the body’s ability to respond and adapt to exercise by becoming stronger, bigger, more flexible
Overload Principle – working out or exercising a muscle beyond its normal limits. A consistent program of overloading a muscle over time will result in the muscle adapting and getting fitter (training effect).
Micro Tear – after overloading the muscle, micro tears appear in the fibers of the muscle. These are called micro tears and are the result of the exertion during the exercise. They repair themselves during rest over the next 24 hours. When they repair over time they will increase the size of the fiber to prevent repeated tearing thus increasing the muscle size and strength.
Rest Recovery Principle – In order for the training effect to occur after exercise the body requires proper rest to effect repairs to muscles. During sleep and inactivity the body replaces energy and builds new muscle. Adequate sleep, diet, and days off from exercise are needed. It takes approximately 24 hours for the body to replace energy and repair muscles after intense exercise.
Specificity of Training – to improve flexibility, strength, power or endurance of a given muscle or group of muscles, you must train specifically for that purpose and focus on the muscles you wish to improve.
Flexibility – the range of motion around a joint. Limited by the bone articulations and the degree of suppleness of surrounding muscles, tendons and ligaments. Good Flexibility allows for more efficient movements and less likelihood of injury.
Strength – the ability of our muscles to move a resistance.
Endurance – the ability of our muscles to continue an activity for a period of time without fatigue.
Power – the ability of the muscle to do a quick and forceful contraction, to move a resistance quickly, such as a standing long jump.
Chronic Exercise injury – muscle injury from over use or over training of a muscle. Characterized by swelling and pain.
Cardio Vascular Fitness – the ability of the heart, lungs and circulatory system to provide oxygen to the muscles during exercise over long durations
Heart Rate – the number of times in one minute the heart contracts or beats. Heart rate is affected by exercise, food/drug intake, stress and emotional states.
Resting Heart Rate (RHR) – your heart rate when completely at rest, lying down. Best taken when you are asleep or when you first wake up in the morning.
Ambient Heart Rate (AHR) - your heart rate when awake and doing normal activity, school work, shopping, etc.
Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) – 220 minus your age is considered to be your MHR
Target Heart Rate (THR)– A method of determining how intensely your heart is working during exercise. Max HR X 60% = Lower intensity level Max HR X 80% = Upper intensity level This number range is used to determine how hard you must exercise aerobically to achieve a training effect on the cardio vascular system. Note you must keep the heart rate in the zone for a minimum of 15 minutes or longer to improve CV fitness.
Recovery Time – the length of time it takes for ones heart rate to recover to their Ambient heart rate following intense exercise. A fit person will recover much quicker to normal heart rate than the unfit person.
Stroke Volume – the amount of blood the heart can pump in one contraction or beat.
Maximum Volume of Oxygen Uptake (Max VO2) – a measure of the amount of Oxygen your heart, lungs and circulatory system can deliver to the muscles in one minute.
F. I T. Principles of Physical Conditioning: In order to produce a desired training effect during any exercise the following principles will apply: F = Frequency – Refers to how often you need to train to have a training effect. For most exercise you need to train at least 3 to 5 times a week over a period of months in order to see improved conditioning. I = Intensity – Refers to how hard you work the muscles during an exercise. You must overload the muscles in order to achieve a training effect. Strength – intensity in weight training it is the amount of weight Cardio – intensity is measured in heart rate. You need to get your heart rate into the target HR zone. T = Time Refers to how long the exercise is kept up. Workouts must be long enough to allow for a training effect to occur. Strength – time is measured in the number of reps and sets you complete for each muscle group. Cardio – time required to have a training effect on cardio is a minimum of 15 minutes or longer to improve CV fitness.
Resistance Training – refers to using weights to target muscle fitness
Interval Training – refers to a type of cardio training that alternates periods of brief intense exercise followed by periods of recovery within the same workout. Example could be doing 8 – 200 m sprints with 1 minute rests between each. Good for developing speed, power and CV endurance.
Cross Training – refers to doing a variety of exercises or sports to maintain an overall level of fitness. It is often easier on the muscles and helps prevent chronic injuries from occurring.
Nutrition & Energy Nutrition and energy – In order to see improvements in fitness it is essential that the body receive proper nutrients in form of a balanced diet in proper proportion. The food we eat supplies the energy, vitamins, protein and water required for the muscles to work at peak efficiency during exercise. The nutrients in food also allow the muscles to repair and improve after exercise (training effect). Improper nutrition reduces the body’s ability to do this. It is like putting poor gas in a high performance engine. Best energy is found in foods with high carbs = fruit and vegetable products. Energy Balance =60% Carbohydrate, 30% Fat and 10% Protein
Dehydration – not having enough water in our bodies for essential metabolic processes. Sweating allows the body to cool itself during exercise. Water is lost at fast rates from sweating. Water is essential to blood flow and energy production in the muscles. Dehydration impedes our ability to perform physically. Drink ½ cup water every 10 min during exercise. By the time you are thirsty your performance has already dropped.
Set Point Our optimum fitness potential. To improve fitness beyond set point requires extremely high efforts and training
Fitness Plateau When we go beyond set point in fitness and our fitness improves only slightly with training
Overtraining The body cannot keep up to the exertion of training. It is unable to recharge and repair at the rate it is being pushed. The result is a decrease of fitness performance.