Infusing CBI & TBI into the Language Classroom: Reinforcing Ethos, Logos, and Pathos in Grammar Instruction & Practice Katie Subra, email@example.com
Speed Dating Warm Up • What content sources do you use in your classroom to teach grammar? (Ex: Newspapers, Videos, Pictures, Textbooks from other fields, Research articles, fiction…) • How do you provide grammatical feedback for your students in a way that promotes future results or revision practice in speaking or writing? (washback) • How do you put the power of self-correction, self-editing, and grammatical awareness into your students' hands? • How do you introduce a new topic to your students? What steps you take? • How do you make an emotional connection between your students and the content while teaching grammar?
Modes of Persuasion through Cartoons: Ethos Ethos: plays on the credibility of the author (is he an expert watchmaker talking about a famous watch or a pro basketball player talking about his sport?)
Modes of Persuasion through Cartoons: Logos Logos: uses logic to convince (facts, statistics, and charts all fall within logos)
Modes of Persuasion through Cartoons: Pathos Pathos: plays on the emotions of the audience (using a tearjerker story to sway people to your side)
Let me persuade you about the importance of the Modes of Persuasion in grammar. • Ethos: You will not always be there with your students. Provide students with grammatical awareness without preventing communicative functions as they are learning. • Logos: By demonstrating a step-by-step approach to deconstructing grammar, you are providing a framework for understanding the language. By using relevant content, you are modeling uses of the grammar so that students can produce it in new contexts. • Pathos: "The research shows" that students learn better when they are emotionally engaged with the content.
Brainstorming Ethos in Grammar How do you put the power of self-correction, self-editing, and grammatical awareness into your students' hands?
Logos in Grammar How do you introduce a new topic to your students? What steps you take?
Pathos in Grammar How do you make an emotional connection between your students and the content while teaching grammar?
Example 1: Grammar Analysis Paper Ethos: Raising awareness through an academic analysis of common English Language Learner grammatical errors: Only Child • Only child is good or bad? In fact in China most family only have one child, my mother also only have one child, so I don't have any brothers. Not like America most families has more than two children. I think only having one child, sometimes is good and sometimes is bad.
Example 1: Grammar Analysis Paper Logos: Providing a step-by-step framework • Step 1: Read student paper and identify the errors. Focus on the grammatical topics covered in class (i.e. Tense, PoS, SVA, Possessives, Modals, Gerunds, Questions, Affirmative/Negative Statements,… varies by level) • Step 2: Meet in class to share your errors and corrections with classmates. Analyze the types of errors that you found. Discuss corrections and grammar rules. • Step 3: Begin writing your analysis. Refer to the textbook page(s) that state the grammatical rules you are focusing on. Use bold font to highlight the error and the correction within the context of the sentence.
Example 1: Grammar Analysis Paper Ethos, Logos, but where is Pathos? • Objectives: • Apply grammatical knowledge to an authentic situation—student writing • Raise awareness about L2 global errors (errors that interfere with comprehensibility) vs. local errors • Develop autonomous grammar learning strategies in students • Empower students to correct grammar mistakes in the writing of their peers (this will eventually empower them to correct their own errors which are similar to their peers) • Reinforce the conventions of academic writing: citing sources, quote integration, and parenthetical situation
Example 2: Examining Popular Sources • Newsprint • Literature/Poetry • Comics • Videos • Corpora • Advertisements • Photos How can each of these utilize Ethos, Logos, and Pathos?
Newsprint: • Use current newsprint articles to create a cloze exercise or, again have students describe the grammatical usage. Voice of America is one good source for intermediate level students as it adapts current news articles for a L2 audience: http://learningenglish.voanews.com/ • A more advanced group of students may want to use an international news source. • Example: VOA English "Program provides Food, Farming Education to Urban Poor"
Directions: 1) Read the excerpt. Circle all of the nouns. 2) Put the nouns into 4 columns according to which article is used (a/an/the/0). 3) Add the nouns to other columns if you can write example sentences using them with different articles. 4) Explain the rule. "At Common Good we tried to stick to 85-15, so 85 percent of the food we grow are distributed within the community, then 15 percent we sell to local restaurants and a mobile farmers' market that comes once a week." Companies donate seeds to the farm. They are also harvested from the farm’s greenhouse. Community members, staff and volunteers grow them in a garden built on an old baseball field.
Thematic Poetry + Cloze • Use thematic poetry and ask students to either complete a cloze exercise or simply describe the rationale behind each article's use in the poem. • A great resource for this is the Poetry Foundation: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/238450 • Music lyrics can be used the same way. • Example: "Wild Geese" by Mary Oliver
You do not have to be good. You do not have to walk on your knees Forhundred miles throughdesert, repenting. You only have to letsoft animal of your body love what it loves. Tell me about your despair, yours, and I will tell you mine. Meanwhileworld goes on. Meanwhilesun andclear pebbles ofrain are moving acrosslandscapes, over prairies anddeep trees,mountains andrivers. Meanwhilewild geese, high inclean blue air, are heading home again. Whoever you are, no matter how lonely,world offers itself to your imagination, calls to you likewild geese, harsh and exciting -- over and over announcing your place infamily of things.
Comics: Find a comic strip or graphic novel appropriate for the target grammar/vocabulary. You can also use pictures or ads! Remove the text. Provide students with a list of required grammatical structures or vocabulary to use. ↵Example: Question: Use a modal to fill in the speech bubble (should, can, would, must, ought, could…) Answer: "You shouldn't expect a note in a bottle to get you off a deserted island!"
Movie Segments to Assess Grammar • http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot.com/search/label/articles • You can search for different tenses and parts of speech and it will provide modern movie clips that use that grammatical element and it also provides some semi-decent worksheets to go along with the clips.
Corpora • Corpora can be used to present authentic examples of article use. Students or teachers can search for parts of speech in real contexts that are collected from news and academic sources • For example: A search for 'the' in 'spoken context' comes up with thousands of real, quoted texts: http://corpus.byu.edu/ • Students can compare spoken vs. written, formal vs. informal uses
Advertisements Title:Write the name of the product here Color & Mood(List the main colors that are used and write an adjective to describe the mood that they show.) A. B… Items used in Image in Addition to Product (List all items in the picture that are not the actual product being sold. If you can, write why those items are used.) A. B… Cultural (Mis)Interpretations(Think of two-three different messages that this advertisement is trying to tell the audience.) A. B.
Teaching students to use Ethos, Logos & Pathos for grammar practice • Students can use these modes of persuasion to improve their own language. • Ask students to analyze their own use of Ethos, Logos, and Pathos while speaking or writing. • In which situations is it appropriate to use each of these? Ex: debates, persuasive writing, conversation • What is the specific language that must be used to convey these ideas? Ex: modals, "according to/recent polls show" (using credible research sources) 3rd person • When is it inappropriate to use each of these? Ex: questioning authority, using these tactics unethically
Resources • Docimo, K. Storyboard That. "Teaching Rhetoric with Ethos, Logos, and Pathos" (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.storyboardthat.com/articles/education/writing/ethos-pathos-lagos#sthash.OBD8rpjp.dpuf • Finley, T. Edutopia. "Writing with Ethos, Logos, and Pathos in 21st Century Authentic Texts" (March 9, 2012). Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/ethos-logos-pathos-21st-century-todd-finley • Grammar Resources: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/ http://learningenglish.voanews.com/ http://corpus.byu.edu/ http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot.com/