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Differentiated Instruction. Lakeview Elementary July 27, 2006. Agenda. What is Differentiated Instruction? Implementation within the Reading Block Guided Reading How to Get Started? Developing a Differentiated Activity. Differentiated Instruction is….

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differentiated instruction

Differentiated Instruction

Lakeview Elementary

July 27, 2006

  • What is Differentiated Instruction?
  • Implementation within the Reading Block
  • Guided Reading
  • How to Get Started?
  • Developing a Differentiated Activity
differentiated instruction is
Differentiated Instruction is…
  • a deliberate, organized, yet flexible way of proactively adjusting teaching and learning to meet children where they are and help them to achieve maximum growth as learners.
goal of differentiated instruction
Goal of Differentiated Instruction
  • Maximum growth from a student’s current learning position.
  • It is a blend of whole-class, small flexible groups, and individual instruction.
  • It is marked by a repeated rhythm of whole-class instruction, review, and sharing, followed by opportunity for individual or small group instruction, practice, extension, and production.
teachers in differentiated classes
Teachers in Differentiated Classes…
  • Begin where the students are as determined by assessments.
  • Accept and build upon the premise that learners differ in important ways and that varied rates of instruction along with varied degrees of complexity must be used.
  • Call upon a range of instructional scientifically-based reading research strategies (Tomlinson, 1999).
model for student success

Continuous Assessment

Data-Based Instructional Planning


Model for Student Success
teacher support child control

Level of Child Control

High Support

Moderate/Low Support

Level of Teacher Support

Little/No Support

Reading Aloud

Shared Reading

Guided Reading

Independent Reading

Language Experience

Interactive Writing

Writing Workshop

Independent Writing

Teacher Support & Child Control
what should the language arts and reading block include








3 Types of Classroom Assessment

Initial Instruction

Immediate Intensive Intervention

5 Major Components






Phonemic Awareness







Progress Monitoring

Flexible grouping


Universal Design

What should the Language Arts and Reading Block Include?
the language arts and reading instructional block

Teacher Directed Instruction

(*50 Minutes)

Grade-Level Text

Core Instruction (CRRP-Houghton Mifflin)

Differentiated Instruction Rotation

Guided Reading / Skills / Strategy Groups

(*40 minutes)

Instructional Level Text

Group 1 (*20 Minute Rotation)

Group 2 (*20 Minute Rotation)

Possibility for a third rotation, if time permits.

Process Writing (*30 Minutes)

* All times are approximate

The Language Arts and Reading Instructional Block
guided reading
Guided Reading
  • Differentiated instructional grouping of students based on their needs, ability, and/or interest
  • Small groups (3-8 students)
  • Groups change based on assessment and observation
  • Allows students to apply the skills and strategies from the anthology lessons in text they can read (at their instructional/independent level).
  • Books become increasingly more challenging as the student progresses and is able to apply skills and strategies independently.
  • Supports the reader’s development of “Good Reader Strategies”
  • Allows the learner to problem solve during reading
  • Develops comprehension and fluency at the reader’s instructional level
materials available
Grades K-2

On My Way Practice Readers

Little Readers

Houghton Mifflin theme paperbacks

Houghton Mifflin Phonics Library (if not previously used with instruction in the CORE block)

A.L.L. Library Books

Previous series leveled books


Grades 3-5

Houghton Mifflin theme paperbacks

Houghton Mifflin Phonics Readers (if not previously used with instruction in the CORE block)

A.L.L. Library Books

Previous series leveled books


Materials Available
outcomes of guided reading
Outcomes of Guided Reading
  • Students will develop comprehension and fluency as they process a variety of increasingly challenging texts at their instructional level. As a result, students will be able to:
    • Connect prior knowledge to text
    • Expand vocabulary
    • Problem solve strategically
    • Predict and adjust predictions accordingly while reading
    • Read for meaning
    • Apply strategies to different genre and text structures
    • Read increasingly challenging text fluently and with comprehension
guided reading groups



  • Teacher Observation
  • Running Records
  • Daily assignments
  • Other
  • DIBELS Risk Levels
  • STAR Lexile Levels
  • DAR
Guided Reading Groups
  • Groups are determined by Informal and Formal assessments.
how is guided reading taught
How is Guided Reading Taught?
  • Students are grouped according to their instructional level.
  • Students are accurately matched to text.
  • Groups meet regularly for approximately 20 minutes.
  • Least proficient are seen daily.
  • Teachers model good reader strategies and provide mini-lessons as needed.
  • Learners transfer and apply strategies to the text during the two day cycle as they read independently.
  • As students progress they are moved to higher levels.
the three reading cueing systems adapted from fountas pinnell

Meaning (Semantic Cue System)

Structure (Syntactic Cue System)


Natural Language

Does it make sense?

Does it sound right?


Knowledge of English


Grammatical and Language Patterns

Sounds and Symbols

Does it look right?

  • Print Conventions:
  • Directionality
  • Word Spaces
  • Letters
  • Beginnings/Endings
  • Punctuation


Visual (Graphophononic Cue System)

The Three Reading Cueing SystemsAdapted from Fountas & Pinnell
meaning semantic cue system
Meaning – Semantic Cue System
  • Does it make sense?
  • What happened in the story when...?
  • What do you think it might be?
  • Can you re-read this?
  • Look at the pictures
  • Let’s review. What is happening now?
structure syntactic cue system
Structure – Syntactic Cue System
  • Does it sound right?
  • Can you re-read that?
  • Can you say it another way?
  • Do you know any part of that word?
  • What other word might fit here?
visual graphophonic cue system
Visual – Graphophonic Cue System
  • Does it look right?
  • What would you expect to see at the beginning/middle/end?
  • What can you do to figure this out?
  • Point to the word…
  • Did that match?
  • What sound/letter does it start with?
  • Can you find….?
supporting fluency how does your reading sound
Supporting FluencyHow does your reading sound?
  • Read your words so it sounds like you are talking.
  • Make your voice show the author’s meaning.
  • Read it like this (model phrases).
  • Make it sound like the characters are talking.
  • Make your voice go down when you see the period.
  • Get excited when you see the exclamation point.
skills based strategies
Skills-Based Strategies
  • When considering skill building activities during teacher led groups:
    • Teacher must model and explain systematically and explicitly
    • Provide guided practice through direct interaction with students using prompts and immediate feedback
    • Scaffold instruction that the student can synthesize and apply with teacher guidance
skills to support the big 5
Phonological Awareness



Sentence segmentation


Onset and Rime



Letter recognition

Letter-sound correspondence

Onset and Rime

Word Study

Syllable patterns

Morpheme structures


Letter recognition

Letter-Sound correspondence

High Frequency words

Oral Reading


Word Identification/ Words in Context

Words that Describe/Word Meaning

Word categorization/Word Knowledge

Word Structure/Word Analysis


Sentence Structure and Meaning

Story Structure

Monitoring for Meaning

Main Idea/ Summarizing

Skills to Support the “Big 5”
tailored center activities
Tailored Center Activities
  • Addresses student’s reading deficiency according to the formal assessments
  • Invites students to independently transfer/apply strategies previously taught and modeled
  • Allows students to manipulate language in both oral and written form
  • Engages the students to learn through cooperative grouping
  • Provides open-ended activities for students that stress skill rather than product
how to get started
How to Get Started?
  • Develop Guided Reading Groups (DIBELS)
  • Classroom Management
  • Gather Materials & Resources
  • Designate Areas in the Classroom
  • Teach, Model, Monitor
dynamic indicators of early literacy skills dibels
Dynamic Indicators of Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)
  • Letter Naming Fluency (K-1)
    • Predictor of later reading skills, taps into letter knowledge and rapid naming ability.
  • Initial Sound Fluency (K)
    • Taps into emerging phonological awareness with beginning sound identification tasks.
dynamic indicators of early literacy skills dibels30
Dynamic Indicators of Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)
  • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (K-1)
    • Measures a child’s skills in breaking short words into individual phonemes, or sounds.
  • Nonsense Word Fluency (K-2)
    • Taps into alphabetic principle skills by measuring letter-sound correspondence skills as well as decoding skills.
dynamic indicators of early literacy skills dibels31
Dynamic Indicators of Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)
  • Oral Reading Fluency (1-5)
    • Measures a student’s accuracy and speed with connected text.
reading a dibels report
Reading a DIBELS Report
  • First Column
    • Red: Students in need of immediate intensive intervention
    • Yellow: Students in need of additional support
    • Green: Current reading instruction is meeting the needs of the student.
reading a dibels report33
Reading a DIBELS Report
  • Next Three Columns
    • Red: High Risk (HR)
    • Yellow: Moderate Risk (MR)
    • Green: Low Risk (LR)
    • Blue: Skills that are at or above the 60th percentile (AA)
  • These columns are critical in forming groups and selecting activities to meet students needs.
getting guided reading started
Getting Guided Reading Started
  • Classroom Management
    • Rules & Consequences
    • Daily Independent work related to reading and writing
    • Centers-Listening, Independent Reading, Fluency Practice, Making Words, Writing to Respond to literature, Technology, etc.
    • Group charts
  • All Necessary Materials
    • Teacher’s Manual
    • Guided Reading Lesson Plan from K-2 or 3-5 Companion
    • Books for each group
    • Chart/dry erase board/blackboard for mini-lessons
    • Strategy posters (Visible to all students)
    • Writing tools e.g. paper, pencils, etc.
  • Designate a quiet area where you can observe both your group and the others
differentiated instructional rotation model guided reading skills based tailored center activities
Differentiated Instructional Rotation ModelGuided Reading / Skills Based / Tailored Center Activities

TLC=Teacher Led Center (skill based or guided reading) IFC=Independent Fluency Center. IWC=Independent Word Center. ILC=Independent Library Center

what to do with the others during guided reading
What to do with the others?During Guided Reading
  • Engage as well as monitor the other students in meaningful literacy center activities that:
    • Establish accountability to encourage students to prevent practicing the same errors
    • Provide opportunities to practice skills and strategies modeled during whole/small group
    • Enhance and extend literacy experiences through tailored center activities and or supplementary materials that reinforce what was previously taught explicitly
establish routines
Establish Routines
  • Routines are patterns of instruction or classroom activity that are used over and over again.
  • The keys to implementing any classroom routine for management are:
    • Teach the routine to your class explicitly
    • Practice the routine with your class
    • Give feedback- What went well…?What didn’t go well…?
    • Revise and try the routine again
managing student centers in the classroom
Managing Student Centers in the Classroom
  • Examples may be:
    • adjusted to meet the needs of a specific class
    • rotations may be added
    • rotations may be deleted
    • the number of students or teacher groups may be modified
rotation wheel center time
Rotation Wheel – Center Time
  • Student names are placed in groups on the larger laminated circle.
  • Clips may be moved as groups change.
  • Use Velcro to place center icons on the smaller laminated circle.
  • Turn wheel to rotate centers.
bulletin board center time
Bulletin Board – Center Time
  • Student pictures are placed in groups using Velcro.
  • Icons are placed on the right side denoting each rotation.
  • Student pictures and icons may be moved when student groups or centers change.
  • Move the red arrow to the right to rotate centers.
flip board center time
Flip Board – Center Time
  • Teacher-led groups are placed vertically and student groups horizontally.
  • Student names are written on Post-it notes so that they may be moved as needed.
  • Letters represent centers and are written to the right side.
  • Yellow poster board strips are flipped behind the white poster board to rotate centers.
pocket chart center time
Pocket Chart – Center Time
  • Teacher-led groups are placed vertically and student groups horizontally.
  • Icons are placed to the right denoting center rotations.
  • The second set of icons is turned over to rotate student centers.
  • Black arrows point student groups to centers.
  • The red arrow points to students who are pulled to the teacher-led groups.
suggested center activities
Suggested Center Activities
  • Library Center
    • Books should include:
      • Teacher has read to the students
      • Fit a theme teacher is using
      • Variety of genre
      • Appropriately leveled
    • Center should be comfortable:
      • Pillows
      • Beanbags
      • Shelves (at student’s eye level)
      • Easily accessible
suggested center activities45
Suggested Center Activities
  • Writing Center
    • Stock with:
      • Various paper (sizes and colors)
      • Crayons
      • Markers
      • Pencils
    • Write reactions to stories
      • Favorite characters
      • Illustrations acceptable in kindergarten
      • Favorite part
suggested center activities46
Suggested Center Activities
  • Writing Center (cont.)
    • Match word and picture cards (acceptable for pre-primer readers)
    • Sequencing
      • Divide paper in 3 sections and have children “write” about what happened 1st, 2nd, or 3rd or beginning, middle, and end.
suggested center activities47
Suggested Center Activities
  • Letters and Sounds
    • Young children learn by using concrete samples
      • Label small boxes and fill them with objects beginning with the letter
      • Place objects beginning with letter on table and have them write the letter and draw the objects
      • Use clay to form letters
      • Write letter and cover with something appropriate (e.g. cover S with salt or sand)
      • Make ABC cards using index cards
      • Cut pictures out of magazines that match letter
suggested center activities48
Suggested Center Activities
  • Art Center
    • Clay to model characters from story
    • Puppets: make characters from story and role play
      • Paper bag
      • Paper plates
    • Draw characters or setting of story
suggested center activities49
Suggested Center Activities
  • Technology Center
    • Riverdeep (Destination Reading)
    • SuccessMaker Enterprise
    • Accelerated Reader
    • Get Set to Read (Houghton Mifflin)
suggested center activities50
Suggested Center Activities
  • Comprehension Center
    • Story Structure
      • Graphic Organizers
      • CRISS
      • Reading First Binders
    • Summarizing
      • Graphic Organizers
      • CRISS
      • Reading First Binders
classroom environment

Technology Center

Teacher Led Center

Library Center

Word Center

Comprehension Center

Fluency Center

Classroom Environment
materials for guided reading
Materials for Guided Reading
  • Good Reader’s Poster and Bookmarks
  • Chalkboards or White Marker Boards
  • Appropriate text at students’ instructional level
    • Variety of genre
    • Leveled readers
  • Classroom Management System
    • Display boards, charts, posters
    • Independent activities from Houghton Mifflin
  • Accountability System
    • Notebook or Clipboard
other available resources
Other Available Resources
  • Handbook For English Language Learners
  • Extra Support Handbook
  • Challenge Handbook
  • Teacher’s Resource Black-line Masters (Reading Cards)
  • Support for FCAT Reading & Writing
  • Classroom Management Handbook
online resources
Online Resources
  • Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR)
    • http://www.fcrr.org
  • Reading A-Z
    • http://www.readinga-z.com/newfiles/leveledreaders.html
  • Using Literacy Centers with Guided Reading
    • http://www.msrossbec.com/literacy_index.html