Differentiated Instruction Lakeview Elementary July 27, 2006
Agenda • What is Differentiated Instruction? • Implementation within the Reading Block • Guided Reading • How to Get Started? • Developing a Differentiated Activity
Differentiated Instruction is… • a deliberate, organized, yet flexible way of proactively adjusting teaching and learning to meet children where they are and help them to achieve maximum growth as learners.
Goal of Differentiated Instruction • Maximum growth from a student’s current learning position. • It is a blend of whole-class, small flexible groups, and individual instruction. • It is marked by a repeated rhythm of whole-class instruction, review, and sharing, followed by opportunity for individual or small group instruction, practice, extension, and production.
Teachers in Differentiated Classes… • Begin where the students are as determined by assessments. • Accept and build upon the premise that learners differ in important ways and that varied rates of instruction along with varied degrees of complexity must be used. • Call upon a range of instructional scientifically-based reading research strategies (Tomlinson, 1999).
Continuous Assessment Data-Based Instructional Planning Instruction Model for Student Success
Level of Child Control High Support Moderate/Low Support Level of Teacher Support Little/No Support Reading Aloud Shared Reading Guided Reading Independent Reading Language Experience Interactive Writing Writing Workshop Independent Writing Teacher Support & Child Control
5 3 ii iii + + + 3 Types of Classroom Assessment Initial Instruction Immediate Intensive Intervention 5 Major Components Explicit Systematic Scaffolded Differentiated Print-rich Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Screening Diagnosis Progress Monitoring Flexible grouping Accommodations Universal Design What should the Language Arts and Reading Block Include?
Teacher Directed Instruction (*50 Minutes) Grade-Level Text Core Instruction (CRRP-Houghton Mifflin) Differentiated Instruction Rotation Guided Reading / Skills / Strategy Groups (*40 minutes) Instructional Level Text Group 1 (*20 Minute Rotation) Group 2 (*20 Minute Rotation) Possibility for a third rotation, if time permits. Process Writing (*30 Minutes) * All times are approximate The Language Arts and Reading Instructional Block
Skills / Strategy Groups Tailored Center Activities Guided Reading Possibilities forDifferentiating Instruction
Guided Reading • Differentiated instructional grouping of students based on their needs, ability, and/or interest • Small groups (3-8 students) • Groups change based on assessment and observation • Allows students to apply the skills and strategies from the anthology lessons in text they can read (at their instructional/independent level). • Books become increasingly more challenging as the student progresses and is able to apply skills and strategies independently. • Supports the reader’s development of “Good Reader Strategies” • Allows the learner to problem solve during reading • Develops comprehension and fluency at the reader’s instructional level • ULTIMATE GOAL: Children read INDEPENDENTLY and SILENTLY
Grades K-2 On My Way Practice Readers Little Readers Houghton Mifflin theme paperbacks Houghton Mifflin Phonics Library (if not previously used with instruction in the CORE block) A.L.L. Library Books Previous series leveled books ANY LEVELED BOOKS Grades 3-5 Houghton Mifflin theme paperbacks Houghton Mifflin Phonics Readers (if not previously used with instruction in the CORE block) A.L.L. Library Books Previous series leveled books ANY LEVELED BOOKS Materials Available
Outcomes of Guided Reading • Students will develop comprehension and fluency as they process a variety of increasingly challenging texts at their instructional level. As a result, students will be able to: • Connect prior knowledge to text • Expand vocabulary • Problem solve strategically • Predict and adjust predictions accordingly while reading • Read for meaning • Apply strategies to different genre and text structures • Read increasingly challenging text fluently and with comprehension
Informal Formal • Teacher Observation • Running Records • Daily assignments • Other • DIBELS Risk Levels • STAR Lexile Levels • DAR Guided Reading Groups • Groups are determined by Informal and Formal assessments.
How is Guided Reading Taught? • Students are grouped according to their instructional level. • Students are accurately matched to text. • Groups meet regularly for approximately 20 minutes. • Least proficient are seen daily. • Teachers model good reader strategies and provide mini-lessons as needed. • Learners transfer and apply strategies to the text during the two day cycle as they read independently. • As students progress they are moved to higher levels.
Meaning (Semantic Cue System) Structure (Syntactic Cue System) Story Natural Language Does it make sense? Does it sound right? Text Knowledge of English Illustrations Grammatical and Language Patterns Sounds and Symbols Does it look right? • Print Conventions: • Directionality • Word Spaces • Letters • Beginnings/Endings • Punctuation Analogies Visual (Graphophononic Cue System) The Three Reading Cueing SystemsAdapted from Fountas & Pinnell
Meaning – Semantic Cue System • Does it make sense? • What happened in the story when...? • What do you think it might be? • Can you re-read this? • Look at the pictures • Let’s review. What is happening now?
Structure – Syntactic Cue System • Does it sound right? • Can you re-read that? • Can you say it another way? • Do you know any part of that word? • What other word might fit here?
Visual – Graphophonic Cue System • Does it look right? • What would you expect to see at the beginning/middle/end? • What can you do to figure this out? • Point to the word… • Did that match? • What sound/letter does it start with? • Can you find….?
Supporting FluencyHow does your reading sound? • Read your words so it sounds like you are talking. • Make your voice show the author’s meaning. • Read it like this (model phrases). • Make it sound like the characters are talking. • Make your voice go down when you see the period. • Get excited when you see the exclamation point.
Skills-Based Strategies • When considering skill building activities during teacher led groups: • Teacher must model and explain systematically and explicitly • Provide guided practice through direct interaction with students using prompts and immediate feedback • Scaffold instruction that the student can synthesize and apply with teacher guidance
Phonological Awareness Rhyme Alliteration Sentence segmentation Syllables Onset and Rime Phonemes Phonics Letter recognition Letter-sound correspondence Onset and Rime Word Study Syllable patterns Morpheme structures Fluency Letter recognition Letter-Sound correspondence High Frequency words Oral Reading Vocabulary Word Identification/ Words in Context Words that Describe/Word Meaning Word categorization/Word Knowledge Word Structure/Word Analysis Comprehension Sentence Structure and Meaning Story Structure Monitoring for Meaning Main Idea/ Summarizing Skills to Support the “Big 5”
Tailored Center Activities • Addresses student’s reading deficiency according to the formal assessments • Invites students to independently transfer/apply strategies previously taught and modeled • Allows students to manipulate language in both oral and written form • Engages the students to learn through cooperative grouping • Provides open-ended activities for students that stress skill rather than product
How to Get Started? • Develop Guided Reading Groups (DIBELS) • Classroom Management • Gather Materials & Resources • Designate Areas in the Classroom • Teach, Model, Monitor
Dynamic Indicators of Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) • Letter Naming Fluency (K-1) • Predictor of later reading skills, taps into letter knowledge and rapid naming ability. • Initial Sound Fluency (K) • Taps into emerging phonological awareness with beginning sound identification tasks.
Dynamic Indicators of Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (K-1) • Measures a child’s skills in breaking short words into individual phonemes, or sounds. • Nonsense Word Fluency (K-2) • Taps into alphabetic principle skills by measuring letter-sound correspondence skills as well as decoding skills.
Dynamic Indicators of Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) • Oral Reading Fluency (1-5) • Measures a student’s accuracy and speed with connected text.
Reading a DIBELS Report • First Column • Red: Students in need of immediate intensive intervention • Yellow: Students in need of additional support • Green: Current reading instruction is meeting the needs of the student.
Reading a DIBELS Report • Next Three Columns • Red: High Risk (HR) • Yellow: Moderate Risk (MR) • Green: Low Risk (LR) • Blue: Skills that are at or above the 60th percentile (AA) • These columns are critical in forming groups and selecting activities to meet students needs.
Getting Guided Reading Started • Classroom Management • Rules & Consequences • Daily Independent work related to reading and writing • Centers-Listening, Independent Reading, Fluency Practice, Making Words, Writing to Respond to literature, Technology, etc. • Group charts • All Necessary Materials • Teacher’s Manual • Guided Reading Lesson Plan from K-2 or 3-5 Companion • Books for each group • Chart/dry erase board/blackboard for mini-lessons • Strategy posters (Visible to all students) • Writing tools e.g. paper, pencils, etc. • Designate a quiet area where you can observe both your group and the others
Differentiated Instructional Rotation ModelGuided Reading / Skills Based / Tailored Center Activities TLC=Teacher Led Center (skill based or guided reading) IFC=Independent Fluency Center. IWC=Independent Word Center. ILC=Independent Library Center
What to do with the others?During Guided Reading • Engage as well as monitor the other students in meaningful literacy center activities that: • Establish accountability to encourage students to prevent practicing the same errors • Provide opportunities to practice skills and strategies modeled during whole/small group • Enhance and extend literacy experiences through tailored center activities and or supplementary materials that reinforce what was previously taught explicitly
Establish Routines • Routines are patterns of instruction or classroom activity that are used over and over again. • The keys to implementing any classroom routine for management are: • Teach the routine to your class explicitly • Practice the routine with your class • Give feedback- What went well…?What didn’t go well…? • Revise and try the routine again
Managing Student Centers in the Classroom • Examples may be: • adjusted to meet the needs of a specific class • rotations may be added • rotations may be deleted • the number of students or teacher groups may be modified
Rotation Wheel – Center Time • Student names are placed in groups on the larger laminated circle. • Clips may be moved as groups change. • Use Velcro to place center icons on the smaller laminated circle. • Turn wheel to rotate centers.
Bulletin Board – Center Time • Student pictures are placed in groups using Velcro. • Icons are placed on the right side denoting each rotation. • Student pictures and icons may be moved when student groups or centers change. • Move the red arrow to the right to rotate centers.
Flip Board – Center Time • Teacher-led groups are placed vertically and student groups horizontally. • Student names are written on Post-it notes so that they may be moved as needed. • Letters represent centers and are written to the right side. • Yellow poster board strips are flipped behind the white poster board to rotate centers.
Pocket Chart – Center Time • Teacher-led groups are placed vertically and student groups horizontally. • Icons are placed to the right denoting center rotations. • The second set of icons is turned over to rotate student centers. • Black arrows point student groups to centers. • The red arrow points to students who are pulled to the teacher-led groups.
Suggested Center Activities • Library Center • Books should include: • Teacher has read to the students • Fit a theme teacher is using • Variety of genre • Appropriately leveled • Center should be comfortable: • Pillows • Beanbags • Shelves (at student’s eye level) • Easily accessible
Suggested Center Activities • Writing Center • Stock with: • Various paper (sizes and colors) • Crayons • Markers • Pencils • Write reactions to stories • Favorite characters • Illustrations acceptable in kindergarten • Favorite part
Suggested Center Activities • Writing Center (cont.) • Match word and picture cards (acceptable for pre-primer readers) • Sequencing • Divide paper in 3 sections and have children “write” about what happened 1st, 2nd, or 3rd or beginning, middle, and end.
Suggested Center Activities • Letters and Sounds • Young children learn by using concrete samples • Label small boxes and fill them with objects beginning with the letter • Place objects beginning with letter on table and have them write the letter and draw the objects • Use clay to form letters • Write letter and cover with something appropriate (e.g. cover S with salt or sand) • Make ABC cards using index cards • Cut pictures out of magazines that match letter
Suggested Center Activities • Art Center • Clay to model characters from story • Puppets: make characters from story and role play • Paper bag • Paper plates • Draw characters or setting of story
Suggested Center Activities • Technology Center • Riverdeep (Destination Reading) • SuccessMaker Enterprise • Accelerated Reader • Get Set to Read (Houghton Mifflin)
Suggested Center Activities • Comprehension Center • Story Structure • Graphic Organizers • CRISS • Reading First Binders • Summarizing • Graphic Organizers • CRISS • Reading First Binders