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Four Levels of Grammar

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  1. Four Levels of Grammar Mrs. Malic 8th Grade

  2. What is grammar???? • Grammar is a way of thinking about language!!! (Write this down!! !)

  3. Four Levels of Grammar • Parts of Speech (shows us each word):What is the word doing? • Parts of Sentence (architecture of the idea): What is being said about what? • Phrases (groups of words pretending to be a single part of speech): What part of speech is this group of words doing? • Clauses (shows if more than one idea is drawn into the sentences design): How many different ideas are connected together in this sentence?

  4. Parts of Speech (Eight kinds of words) • Noun • Pronoun • Adjective • Verb • Adverb • Preposition • Conjunction • Interjection

  5. Noun • Person, place or thing • Proper noun: Capitalized • Common noun: Not capitalized • Possessive noun: words that would normally be nouns, but are used as adjectives to modify a noun Example: The dog's collar is too large. The word "dog's" is the possessive noun. It tells you that the noun "collar" belongs to the dog

  6. Pronoun • A word that takes the place of a noun

  7. Antecedent • The pronoun’s antecedent is the noun the pronoun replaces. • Example: Jackwalked in the room and then he sat down.

  8. Subject Pronouns: • We use them to make subjects. They may be used as subjects of clauses and as subject complements. They are not to be used as objects.

  9. Subject Pronouns: • Singular • First Person: I • Second Person: You • Third Person: He, she, it • Write down and memorize! • Plural • First Person: We • Second Person: You • Third Person: They • Write down and memorize!

  10. Object Pronouns: • They are pronouns that must be used as direct objects, indirect objects or objects of the preposition.

  11. Object Pronouns: • Singular: • First Person: Me • Second Person: You • Third Person: Him, Her, it • Write down and memorize! • Plural • First Person: us • Second Person: You • Third Person: Them • Write down and memorize!

  12. Important rule!!! • A subject is a subject, and an object is an object. • Any part of a sentence called a subject uses a subject pronoun. (subject of a clause or subject complement) • Any part of a sentence called an object uses an object pronoun. (direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition)

  13. More Pronouns • Possessive Pronouns: (show possession) • My, your, his, her, its, our and their. • Possessive case pronouns do not require an apostrophe!!!! • Interrogative pronoun: (Used to interrogate) • Who, whose, whom, which, what • Demonstrative Pronouns: (Used to demonstrate) • This, that, these, those

  14. Adjective: A word that modifies a noun or pronoun. • Modify means to change • Example: Think of a frozen summit. • Now think of a political summit.

  15. Adjective is part of a binary system. The presence of an adjective implies the presence of a noun or pronoun.

  16. Three degrees of adjectives • Positive: Good • Comparative: Better • Superlative: Best

  17. Articles: Noun alerts, they signal that a noun is about to appear. • A • An • The

  18. Verb • A word that shows action, being or links a subject to a subject complement. • Tells what the noun does or is • Action verb: might show an action on a direct object • Linking verb: might link the subject to a subject complement

  19. Important!!! • Verb is saying that the noun did something or that the noun is something. • ***Verbs are the core of everything we say about everything!!!!

  20. Principal parts of the verb • To do, to go, to think, to dream Past: did, went, thought, dreamed • Doing, going, thinking, dreaming, ascending Past Participle: done, gone, thought, dreamed Infinitive: Present participle:

  21. Irregular Verbs • To shrink • Shrinking • Shrank • Shrunk • To write • Writing • Wrote • Written Memorize in order to use correctly. Memorize in order to use correctly.

  22. Transitive Verb • Definition: an action verb that acts on a direct object • Example: The harpoon hit Moby Dick.

  23. Active and Passive Voice • An active verb is an action verb that shows the subject acting. • Example: John discussed the problem. • A passive voice verb is an action verb that shows the subject being acted upon. • Example: The problem was discussed. • Passive voice tends to leave out important information. (Who discussed the problem?)

  24. More Examples: • Active Voice: The meteor struck the ship. • Passive Voice: The ship was struck by the meteor. • Active Voice: The Literary Society presented Dickens the award. • Passive Voice: Dickens was presented with an award.

  25. When is Passive Voice useful??? • Writers of scientific papers often prefer passive voice and past tense in order to describe the results of experiments and scientific investigations. • With literary and historical figures, passive voice should be avoided.

  26. Time makes verbs tense… • Six Verb Tenses: • Present • Past • Future • Present Perfect • Past Perfect • Future Perfect

  27. Examples of tenses in action • Present • Past • Future • Present Perfect • Past Perfect • Future Perfect • I protest • I protested • I will (shall) protest • I have protested • I had protested • I will (shall) have protested

  28. The perfect tenses have finished. • Why are they called perfect? • The three perfect tenses are called perfect because the word perfect comes from the Latin perficere, meaning: “to finish.” • The perfect tenses are the tenses of things that are finished. • Finished in the past, finished in the present or finished in the future.

  29. Parallel Verb Tense • Parallelism in tense means sticking to the tense you are using. • Keeping verb tenses parallel is good writing technique. • Example: I went home, picked up the apple, threw it through the window, and laughed. (all past tense)

  30. Parallelism continued • Keep parts of speech parallel • Example: John was tall and handsome (adj) • Example: John was tall and an athlete (adj and noun) • Don’t forget the magic 3!!!

  31. Summary of verbs! • Insert picture here

  32. Remember!!! • Only action verbs are transitive and intransitive, active or passive • Those terms do not apply to linking verbs!

  33. Adverbs • An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective or adverb. • Beware of adverbs! Do not overuse due to your lack of vocabulary! • Example: The very tall, gigantic statue vs. The colossus statue.

  34. WEAK • “The adverb is not your friend.” • Stephen King • What do you think he means? • Sometimes a modifier will backfire, especially when overused. One example is the adverb very. The adverb very often has the effect of weakening the sentence by filling it with empty space.

  35. Preposition • The preposition shows a relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. • Prepositions show relationship between time (before, during, after), space (in, on, beside, around), and direction (to, from, toward).

  36. Prepositions continued • Prepositions show where two things are located in relationship to each other. • Prepositions give language its geometry. • They are the x, y, z coordinates for the mind.

  37. Conjunctions • A word that joins two words or two groups of words. • Coordinating conjunctions co-ordinate: Join two words or groups of words of similar importance. • Memorize because you need to know in order to identify and punctuate compound sentences!!!

  38. Coordinating Conjunctions • And • But • Or • Nor • For • So • Yet

  39. Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinate conjunctions join unequals • They join something of lesser importance to something of greater importance • Memorize for use with complex sentences!!! • If, as, since, when, because

  40. Correlative Conjunctions • Multiple word conjunctions: • Either/or • Neither/nor • Example: Either you or I will arrive.

  41. Conjunctive Adverbs • Conjunctive adverbs are conjunctions that act both as adverbs and as conjunctions. • However, furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, accordingly, and therefore.

  42. Interjection • A word that shows emotion but has no grammar function. • The only part of speech that does not participate in a relationship with other parts of speech. • Examples: oh, ugh, oof, wow, yes, not, oops.

  43. Parts of speech simplified • Nouns: name things • Pronouns: make language fast • Verbs: make events and equations • Adjectives and Adverbs: adjust nouns and verbs • Prepositions: show relationships of physics and • 3-D ness • Conjunctions: combine • Interjections: emote

  44. The core of every idea is a noun/pronoun and a verb. • All other parts of speech provide elaborations and variations. • There are two main kinds of words: noun and verb • All other six parts of speech play supporting roles

  45. Parts of the sentence!!!

  46. What is a sentence anyway? • A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and its predicate, and makes a complete thought. • When we study parts of the sentence, we are studying the structure of thought itself. • The sentence is the mind, in language.

  47. Subject • Simple Subject: The noun or subject pronoun that the sentence is about. • Complete Subject: the simple subject and all of its modifiers. • Compound Subject: more than one noun or pronoun used as a double subject of the same clause (Example: Physics and astronomy are my favorite subjects.) • (Compound subjects using and are plural. Compound subjects using or are singular. Example: John and Jim are here. John or Jim is here.)

  48. Predicate • The verb and other words that are about the subject. • The side of the sentence that says something about the subject. • Simple Predicate: the verb • Complete Predicate: everything that is said about the subject • Example: Hamlet went over to the crater and gathered three bags of comet dust.

  49. Predicate continued: • Compound verb: When the stars threw down their spears and watered heaven with their tears… • Simple sentence and simple predicate is always present as a nucleus of an idea!!!!