Four Levels of Grammar Mrs. Malic 8th Grade
What is grammar???? • Grammar is a way of thinking about language!!! (Write this down!! !)
Four Levels of Grammar • Parts of Speech (shows us each word):What is the word doing? • Parts of Sentence (architecture of the idea): What is being said about what? • Phrases (groups of words pretending to be a single part of speech): What part of speech is this group of words doing? • Clauses (shows if more than one idea is drawn into the sentences design): How many different ideas are connected together in this sentence?
Parts of Speech (Eight kinds of words) • Noun • Pronoun • Adjective • Verb • Adverb • Preposition • Conjunction • Interjection
Noun • Person, place or thing • Proper noun: Capitalized • Common noun: Not capitalized • Possessive noun: words that would normally be nouns, but are used as adjectives to modify a noun Example: The dog's collar is too large. The word "dog's" is the possessive noun. It tells you that the noun "collar" belongs to the dog
Pronoun • A word that takes the place of a noun
Antecedent • The pronoun’s antecedent is the noun the pronoun replaces. • Example: Jackwalked in the room and then he sat down.
Subject Pronouns: • We use them to make subjects. They may be used as subjects of clauses and as subject complements. They are not to be used as objects.
Subject Pronouns: • Singular • First Person: I • Second Person: You • Third Person: He, she, it • Write down and memorize! • Plural • First Person: We • Second Person: You • Third Person: They • Write down and memorize!
Object Pronouns: • They are pronouns that must be used as direct objects, indirect objects or objects of the preposition.
Object Pronouns: • Singular: • First Person: Me • Second Person: You • Third Person: Him, Her, it • Write down and memorize! • Plural • First Person: us • Second Person: You • Third Person: Them • Write down and memorize!
Important rule!!! • A subject is a subject, and an object is an object. • Any part of a sentence called a subject uses a subject pronoun. (subject of a clause or subject complement) • Any part of a sentence called an object uses an object pronoun. (direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition)
More Pronouns • Possessive Pronouns: (show possession) • My, your, his, her, its, our and their. • Possessive case pronouns do not require an apostrophe!!!! • Interrogative pronoun: (Used to interrogate) • Who, whose, whom, which, what • Demonstrative Pronouns: (Used to demonstrate) • This, that, these, those
Adjective: A word that modifies a noun or pronoun. • Modify means to change • Example: Think of a frozen summit. • Now think of a political summit.
Adjective is part of a binary system. The presence of an adjective implies the presence of a noun or pronoun.
Three degrees of adjectives • Positive: Good • Comparative: Better • Superlative: Best
Articles: Noun alerts, they signal that a noun is about to appear. • A • An • The
Verb • A word that shows action, being or links a subject to a subject complement. • Tells what the noun does or is • Action verb: might show an action on a direct object • Linking verb: might link the subject to a subject complement
Important!!! • Verb is saying that the noun did something or that the noun is something. • ***Verbs are the core of everything we say about everything!!!!
Principal parts of the verb • To do, to go, to think, to dream Past: did, went, thought, dreamed • Doing, going, thinking, dreaming, ascending Past Participle: done, gone, thought, dreamed Infinitive: Present participle:
Irregular Verbs • To shrink • Shrinking • Shrank • Shrunk • To write • Writing • Wrote • Written Memorize in order to use correctly. Memorize in order to use correctly.
Transitive Verb • Definition: an action verb that acts on a direct object • Example: The harpoon hit Moby Dick.
Active and Passive Voice • An active verb is an action verb that shows the subject acting. • Example: John discussed the problem. • A passive voice verb is an action verb that shows the subject being acted upon. • Example: The problem was discussed. • Passive voice tends to leave out important information. (Who discussed the problem?)
More Examples: • Active Voice: The meteor struck the ship. • Passive Voice: The ship was struck by the meteor. • Active Voice: The Literary Society presented Dickens the award. • Passive Voice: Dickens was presented with an award.
When is Passive Voice useful??? • Writers of scientific papers often prefer passive voice and past tense in order to describe the results of experiments and scientific investigations. • With literary and historical figures, passive voice should be avoided.
Time makes verbs tense… • Six Verb Tenses: • Present • Past • Future • Present Perfect • Past Perfect • Future Perfect
Examples of tenses in action • Present • Past • Future • Present Perfect • Past Perfect • Future Perfect • I protest • I protested • I will (shall) protest • I have protested • I had protested • I will (shall) have protested
The perfect tenses have finished. • Why are they called perfect? • The three perfect tenses are called perfect because the word perfect comes from the Latin perficere, meaning: “to finish.” • The perfect tenses are the tenses of things that are finished. • Finished in the past, finished in the present or finished in the future.
Parallel Verb Tense • Parallelism in tense means sticking to the tense you are using. • Keeping verb tenses parallel is good writing technique. • Example: I went home, picked up the apple, threw it through the window, and laughed. (all past tense)
Parallelism continued • Keep parts of speech parallel • Example: John was tall and handsome (adj) • Example: John was tall and an athlete (adj and noun) • Don’t forget the magic 3!!!
Summary of verbs! • Insert picture here
Remember!!! • Only action verbs are transitive and intransitive, active or passive • Those terms do not apply to linking verbs!
Adverbs • An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective or adverb. • Beware of adverbs! Do not overuse due to your lack of vocabulary! • Example: The very tall, gigantic statue vs. The colossus statue.
WEAK • “The adverb is not your friend.” • Stephen King • What do you think he means? • Sometimes a modifier will backfire, especially when overused. One example is the adverb very. The adverb very often has the effect of weakening the sentence by filling it with empty space.
Preposition • The preposition shows a relationship between its object and another word in the sentence. • Prepositions show relationship between time (before, during, after), space (in, on, beside, around), and direction (to, from, toward).
Prepositions continued • Prepositions show where two things are located in relationship to each other. • Prepositions give language its geometry. • They are the x, y, z coordinates for the mind.
Conjunctions • A word that joins two words or two groups of words. • Coordinating conjunctions co-ordinate: Join two words or groups of words of similar importance. • Memorize because you need to know in order to identify and punctuate compound sentences!!!
Coordinating Conjunctions • And • But • Or • Nor • For • So • Yet
Subordinating Conjunctions • Subordinate conjunctions join unequals • They join something of lesser importance to something of greater importance • Memorize for use with complex sentences!!! • If, as, since, when, because
Correlative Conjunctions • Multiple word conjunctions: • Either/or • Neither/nor • Example: Either you or I will arrive.
Conjunctive Adverbs • Conjunctive adverbs are conjunctions that act both as adverbs and as conjunctions. • However, furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, accordingly, and therefore.
Interjection • A word that shows emotion but has no grammar function. • The only part of speech that does not participate in a relationship with other parts of speech. • Examples: oh, ugh, oof, wow, yes, not, oops.
Parts of speech simplified • Nouns: name things • Pronouns: make language fast • Verbs: make events and equations • Adjectives and Adverbs: adjust nouns and verbs • Prepositions: show relationships of physics and • 3-D ness • Conjunctions: combine • Interjections: emote
The core of every idea is a noun/pronoun and a verb. • All other parts of speech provide elaborations and variations. • There are two main kinds of words: noun and verb • All other six parts of speech play supporting roles
What is a sentence anyway? • A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and its predicate, and makes a complete thought. • When we study parts of the sentence, we are studying the structure of thought itself. • The sentence is the mind, in language.
Subject • Simple Subject: The noun or subject pronoun that the sentence is about. • Complete Subject: the simple subject and all of its modifiers. • Compound Subject: more than one noun or pronoun used as a double subject of the same clause (Example: Physics and astronomy are my favorite subjects.) • (Compound subjects using and are plural. Compound subjects using or are singular. Example: John and Jim are here. John or Jim is here.)
Predicate • The verb and other words that are about the subject. • The side of the sentence that says something about the subject. • Simple Predicate: the verb • Complete Predicate: everything that is said about the subject • Example: Hamlet went over to the crater and gathered three bags of comet dust.
Predicate continued: • Compound verb: When the stars threw down their spears and watered heaven with their tears… • Simple sentence and simple predicate is always present as a nucleus of an idea!!!!