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REINFORCING DETAILING OF R.C.C MEMBERS. PRESENTED BY Er.T.RANGARAJAN , B.E,M.Sc(struct.engg ), F.I.E,FACCE,LACI,LISSE,LIASE. WHO IS AN ENGINEER?. According to USA President Herbert Hoover, who was an engineer before he became a politician, said:

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reinforcing detailing of r c c members

REINFORCING DETAILING OF R.C.C MEMBERS

PRESENTED BY

Er.T.RANGARAJAN,B.E,M.Sc(struct.engg),F.I.E,FACCE,LACI,LISSE,LIASE

who is an engineer
WHO IS AN ENGINEER?
  • According to USA President Herbert Hoover, who was an engineer before he became a politician, said:
  • The great liability of the engineer …compared to men of other professions……is that his works are out in the open where all can see them.
  • His acts …..step by step …are in hard substances.
  • He cannot bury his mistakes in the grave like the DOCTORS.
  • He cannot argue them into thin air…..or blame the judge…..like the LAWYERS.
  • He cannot, like the ARCHITECT, cover his figures with trees and vines.
  • He cannot, like the politicians, screen his shortcomings by blaming his opponents….and hope the people will forget. The ENGINEER simply cannot deny he did it.
  • If his works do not work……he is damned.
slide3
A design engineer’s responsibility should include assuring the structural safety of the design, details, checking shop drawing.
  • Detailing is as important as design since proper detailing of engineering designs is an essential link in the planning and engineering process as some of the most devasting collapses in history have been caused by defective connections or DETAILING. There are many examples explained in the book" DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FAILURES by Dov Kaminetzky.
  • Detailing is very important not only for the proper execution of the structures but for the safety of the structures.
  • Detailing is necessary not only for the steel structures but also for the RCC members as it is the translation of all the mathematical expression’s and equation’s results.
slide4
For the RCC members for most commonly used for buildings we can divide the detailing for
  • SLABS-WITH OR WITHOUT OPENINGS.(RECTANGULAR,CIRCULAR,NON-RECTANGULAR-PYRAMID SLAB,TRIANGULAR ETC)

-BALCONY SLAB,LOFT SLAB,CORNER SLAB etc

  • BEAMS- WITH OR WITHOUT OPENIGS.(SHALLOW & DEEP BEAMS)
  • COLUMNS.(RECTANGULAR,L-SHAPE,T-SHAPE,

CIRCULAR,OCTAGONAL,CROSS SHAPE etc)

4. FOUNDATIONS.

  • Detailing for gravity loads is different from the lateral loads specially for the SEISMIC FORCES.
  • Apart from the detailing for the above there is a different detailing required for the Rehabilitation and strengthening of damaged structures.
  • We will now dwell on the DETAILING OF MEMBERS FOR THE GRAVITY AND SOME CODAL DETAILINGS AS PER IS CODE IS 13920 AND IS 4326 AS REQUIRED FOR SEISMIC FORCES.
do s donot s for detailing
DO’S & DONOT’S FOR DETAILING
  • DO’S-GENERAL
  • Prepare drawings properly & accurately if possible label each bar and show its shape for clarity.

12”

I ¼”dia@12”c/c

1- ¼”dia@12”c/c

Cross section of retaining wall which collapsed immediately after placing of soil

backfill because ¼” rather than 1-1/4” dia. were used. Error occurred because

Correct rebar dia. Was covered by a dimension line.

slide6
Prepare bar-bending schedule , if necessary.

3. Indicate proper cover-clear cover, nominal cover or effective cover to reinforcement.

4. Decide detailed location of opening/hole and supply adequate details for reinforcements around the openings.

5. Use commonly available size of bars and spirals. For a single structural member the number of different sizes of bars shall be kept minimum.

6. The grade of the steel shall be clearly stated in the drawing.

  • Deformed bars need not have hooks at their

ends.

8. Show enlarged details at corners, intersections of walls, beams and column joint and at similar situations.

slide7
9. Congestion of bars should be avoided at points where members intersect and make certain that all rein. Can be properly placed.

10. In the case of bundled bars, lapped splice of bundled bars shall be made by splicing one bar at a time; such individual splices within the bundle shall be staggered.

11. Make sure that hooked and bent up bars can be placed and have adequate concrete protection.

slide8
Indicate all expansion, construction and contraction joints on plans and provide details for such joints.
  • The location of construction joints shall be at the point of minimum shear approximately at mid or near the mid points. It shall be formed vertically and not in a sloped manner.

DO’S – BEAMS & SLABS:

  • Where splices are provided in bars, they shall be , as far as possible, away from the sections of maximum stresses and shall be staggered.
  • Were the depth of beams exceeds 750mm in case of beams without torsion and 450mm with torsion provide face rein. as per IS456-2000.
  • Deflection in slabs/beams may be reduced by providing compression reinforcement.
  • Only closed stirrups shall be used for transverse rein. For members subjected to torsion and for members likely to be subjected to reversal of stresses as in Seismic forces.
slide9
To accommodate bottom bars, it is good practice to make secondary beams shallower than main beams, at least by 50mm.

Do’s –COLUMNS.

  • A reinforced column shall have at least six bars of longitudinal reinforcement for using in transverse helical reinforcement.-for CIRCULAR sections.
  • A min four bars one at each corner of the column in the case of rectangular sections.
  • Keep outer dimensions of column constant, as far as possible , for reuse of forms.
  • Preferably avoid use of 2 grades of vertical bars in the same element.
  • DONOT’S-GENERAL:
  • Reinforcement shall not extend across an expansion joint and the break between the sections shall be complete.
  • Flexural reinforcement preferably shall not be terminated in a tension zone.
slide10
Bars larger than 36mm dia. Shall not be bundled.
  • Lap splices shall be not be used for bars larger than 36mm dia. Except where welded.
  • Where dowels are provided, their diameter shall not exceed the diameter of the column bars by more than 3mm.
  • Where bent up bars are provided, their contribution towards shear resistance shall not be more than 50% of the total shear to be resisted. USE OF SINGEL BENT UP BARS(CRANKED) ARE NOT ALLOWED IN THE CASE OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE STRUCTURES.
detailing of slabs without any cut or openings
DETAILING OF SLABS WITHOUT ANY CUT OR OPENINGS.
  • The building plan DX-3 shows the slabs in different levels for the purpose of eliminating the inflow of rainwater into the room from the open terrace and also the sunken slab for toilet in first floor.
  • The building plan DX-A3 is one in which the client asked the architect to provide opening all round.

Refer the 3d elevation

slide12

6”depression for OT & 9” for sunken slabs.

Different shapes of slabs used in the buildings.

Portico slab in elevation

19’-6”

5’wide corridor all

round

9’-6”suare opening

Portico slab in plan

Portico and other rooms roof slab in plan

slide13
Minimum and max.reinforcement % in beams, slabs and columns as per codal provisions should be followed.
  • SLABS:
  • It is better to provide a max spacing of 200mm(8”) for main bars and 250mm(10”) in order to control the crack width and spacing.
  • A min. of 0.24% shall be used for the roof slabs since it is subjected to higher temperature. Variations than the floor slabs. This is required to take care of temp. differences.
  • It is advisable to not to use 6mm bars as main bars as this size available in the local market is of inferior not only with respect to size but also the quality since like TATA and SAIL are not producing this size of bar.
  • BEAMS:
  • A min. of 0.2% is to be provided for the compression bars in order to take care of the deflection.
slide14
The stirrups shall be min.size of 8mm in the case of lateral load resistance .
  • The hooks shall be bent to 135 degree .
slide15

CANTILEVER BEAM

crack

INCORRECT

Ldt

CLOSE STIRRUPS

Ldt/2

Ld/2

Ld/2

CORRECT

Ld

slide16

NON PRISMATIC BEAM

crack

INCORRECT

Ldt

CLOSE STIRRUPS

Ldt/2

Ld/2

Ld/2

CORRECT

Ld

grid beam
GRID BEAM

GRID BEAM

INCORRECT

Close rings

1.5d

1.5d

1.5d

300

300

d

Hanger bars

2#extra bars

CORRECT

Slope 1:10

slide18

Details of Main & Secondary beams

Secondary beam

Main beam

INCORRECT

Secondary beam

Close rings

1.5d

1.5d

1.5d

300

300

d

60degree

Hanger bars

Main beam

CORRECT

slide19

BEAM

d

INCORRECT

1/4OR 1/5 SPAN

Ld

Ld

LINE OF CRACK

d/2

t

d/2

t

d/2+d/2Cot(t)

1.5d

CORRECT

continuous beam
Continuous beam

Span/4

Span/4

  • continuous beam

Span/4

Span/4

Span/4

incorrect

Span/4

Span/4

1.5d

1.5d

1.5d

correct

slide21

CONTINUOUS BEAM

SPAN/4

SPAN/4

SPAN/4

.08L1

100%

CRACK

100%

CRACK

CRACK

L1

.08L1

.08L1

L2

.08L2

INCORRECT

100%

L1/4

L2/4

L1/4

20%

20%

0.1L1

100%

100%

L1

.15L1

L2

.15L2

CORRECT

slide22

NONPRISMATIC SECTION OF BEAM

D

CRACK

D

D

INCORRECT

CLOSE RING

D

D

CORRECT

D

CLOSE RING

slide23

CANTILEVER BEAM PROJECTING FROM COLUMN

COLUMN

INCORRECT

NOT LESS THAN 0.5Ast

NOT LESS THAN GREATER OF 0.5L OR Ld

50mm

Ld

0.25Ast

COLUMN

CORRECT

Ld/3

slide24

SLOPING BEAM

CRACK

Ld

Ld

CORRECT

slide25

HAUNCH BEAMS

CRACK

CRACK

L

INCORRECT

Ld

Ld

CORRECT

Ld

L/8 TO L/10

Ld

L/8 TO L/10

L

slide26

STRESSES AT CORNERS

C-COMPRESSION

T-TENSION

C

t

C

CRACK

t

RESULTANT TENSILE STRESS FOR ACROSS CORNER(ONE PLANE)

RESULTANT TENSILE STRESS FOR ACROSS CORNER(DIFFERENT PLANE)

t

CRACK

c

t

c

slide27

SHEAR AND TORSION REIN. IN BEAMS

Stirrups taken round outermost bars spacing<=x1

<=(x1+y1)/4

<=300mm

Min 0.2%bd to control deflection as well as for seismic requ.

INCORRECT

n

d

y1

Skin rein.10dia is required when depth exceeds 450mm(0.1% of web area distributed equally on two faces)

D

100 to 200mm

D-n>500mm

D-n>500mm

D/5

x1

CORRECT

b

slide28

CANTILEVER BEAM WITH POINT LOAD

Shear rein.

INCORRECT

2/3d

d

Ld

CORRECT

Ld

Extra ties

slide29

INCORRECT

opening

crack

crack

OPENING IN WEB OF BEAM

d/2

opening

d/2

Closed stps for d/2

Closed stps for d/2

Ld

OPENING IN WEB OF BEAM

CORRECT

slide30

BEAM COLUMN JUNCTION-EXTERIOR COLUMN

INCORRECT

CLOSED STPS

2”max

U TYPE BARS

Ld

IN TENSION-Ld

CORRECT

slide31

SPLICE DETAIL FOR COLUMN

COVER

CLOSE TIES @S/2

SLOPE 1:6

S-SPACING

CORRECT

INCORRECT

slide32

REDUCTION COLUMN BOTH SIDES

INCORRECT

SPLICE

SLOPE 1:8 FROM BEAM BOTTOM

3NO.CLOSE TIES

CLOSE STPS SPACIN <=75mm

3NO.CLOSE TIES

CORRECT

slide34

*COL.CORE HAS TO BE CONFINED BY CIRCULAR OR RECTANGULAR TIES IN ACCORDANCE WITH END REGION

EQREGION-BEAM-COL JN-EXTERIOR

SPACING OF LATERAL TIES <=d/2

COL.

CORE*

END REGION

SPACING OF LATERAL TIES <=100mm

END REGION

BEAM COL. JUNCTION-EQ REGION

INCORRECT

CORRECT

SPACING OF LATERAL TIES <=d/2

SPACING OF LATERAL TIES <=d/2

BEAM COL. JUNCTION-EQ REGION

slide35

COLUMN DETAILS IN EQ REGIONS

incorrect

First stirrups 50mm from beam face

correct

END REGION

END REGION-h/6 or D or 450MM whichever is greater

h

b

d

D

END REGION

END REGION

Spacing of shear rein. In columns

Spacing of shear rein. In columns

slide36

EQ-REGION-CONTINUOUS BEAM

INCORRECT

50mmmax

CONTINUOUS BARS NOT LESS THAN ¼ AREA OF BARS AT COL.FACE

CORRECT

A=L1/3

A=L1/3

A=L1/3

Ld

stp@maxd/2

2d

2d

2d

stp@maxd/2

2d

Stirrup spacing=d/4 or 100mm or 8dia which ever is the least

slide37

FOOTING-DETAILS(INDEPENDENT)

INCORRECT

COLUMN BARS

STARTER BARS

NATURAL G.L

COVER TO STARTER

Lb

3” SIDE COVER

Ldt

Min.300

COVER50mm IF p.c.c below or 75mm

Ldt

CORRECT

slide39

SECTION OF TRENCH

INCORRECT

INCORRECT

CRACK

CORRECT

Ld

Ld

Ld

slide40

STAIRCASE-WITH WAIST SLAB

INCORRECT

Extra bar

Ld(min)

Ld(min)

Ld(min)

CORRECT

slide41

SLABLESS STAIRCASE

Dist.

Alternate 1

Main bar

Main bar

slide42

SLABLESS STAIRCASE

Main bar

L=horizontal span

Alternate 2

A=0.25L

slide43

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF BARS

FOR A CONCRETE GRADE M20 &STEEL STRENGTH Fy=415

APPROXIMATELY USE 50Xdia FOR TENSION

slide44
CONCLUSION:
  • Before concluding I will show some more details drawn in autocad exported in wwf format
  • As there is no time to elaborately explaining ,the following topics are not covered :
  • Flat slabs, Folded plates, shell structures-cylindrical shells, silos,
  • Staircases- helical staircase, central beam type, cantilever type etc.
  • Different types of foundations-raft, pile foundation, strap foundation etc.
  • Retaining wall structures,
  • Liquid retaining structures.
  • Deep beams.
  • Shear wall, walls.

Hope that I have enlighten some of the detailing technique for the most commonly encountered RCC members in buildings.

In the above statements if my senior colleagues and ACCE members can find different method or any new detailing system it will be of immense help not only for me but to other young engineers who should learn in wright ways and not wrong lessons.

references
REFERENCES:
  • HANDBOOK ON CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT AND DETAILING-SP:34(S&T)-1987.
  • MANUAL OF ENGINEERING & PLACING DRAWINGS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES-

(ACI 315-80

  • MANUAL OF STANDARD PRACTICE –CONCRETE REINFORCING STEEL INSTITUTE.
  • TWARD BOARD MANUAL FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES.
  • DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND DETAILING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES. By D.S.PRAKASH RAO.
  • SIMPLIFIED DESIGN-RC BUILDINGS OF MODERATE SIZE AND HEIGHT-BY PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION,USA.
  • DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION FAILURES BY DOV KAMINETZKY.
slide46
IS:2502-1963 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR BENDING AND FIXING OF BARS FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT.
  • IS:1893:2000.
  • IS:4326.
  • IS:456:2000
  • REINFORCED HAND BOOK BY REYNOLD.