Contents • Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations • Ethos – The Speaker • Pathos – The Audience • Logos – The Message • Developing a Group Persuasive Presentation • Presentation Checklist • Presenting with Confidence
Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations • Definition of Persuasive Presentation: • purpose of influencing the audience knowledge, beliefs, actions, or all three. • Aristotle: persuasive speakers consider speaker (ethos), audience (pathos), and argument or message (logos) qualities. • Ethos, pathos, and logos still important today.
Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations • The initial step to preparing a persuasive presentation is: Identify the Presentation Goal • What the audience should acquire or do • information • belief(s) • action(s)
Taking Stock: Speaking goal: respond to these questions: • What is the topic or issue? • What new information should be received? • What beliefs should be accepted? • What action(s) should be agreed to by audience?
Fundamentals of Persuasive Presentations • Your speaking goal guide your persuasive presentation • Eliminate information not central to your speaking goal
Ethos • Ethos: The image the speaker presented to the audience(Aristotle) • Theory says: Audiences are influenced by speaker • credibility • perceived intentions • likeability
Speaker Credibility Social Judgment Theory(Sharif) emphasizes the need for speakers to appear believable or credible to audience • more likely to be accepted • Credible speakers emphasize knowledge and experience and give information source
Self Analysis to Determine Credibility • To determine your knowledge about the topic or issue, list the types of knowledge included in the presentation • Interviews? • Documents? • Focus Groups? • Observations? • Other sources?
Self Analysis to Determine Credibility Cont. • To determine experience, list the nature and length of time spent on acquiring information • Visitations • “Hands on” or practical experience • Relevant educational experiences • Life Experiences • Other
Speaker Perceived Intention Attribution Theory:(Heider) audience draws conclusions about the speaker’s intentions • Audience wants to know why you advocate a certain belief or course of action
Taking Stock • To summarize your commitment to an advocated position, ask yourself how does action or belief: • Benefit audience? • Benefit others? If so, who? how? • Immediate benefits? • Long term benefits?
Speaker Likeability Balance Theory:(Heider) we try to reduce tension to restore balance • Positive feeling between two people, more likely the message will be received positively • Analyze and attend to audience to build liking • Invite questions
Respond to Audience Questions • Invite questions in a sincere, enthusiastic manner • Repeat or paraphrase question, maintain eye contact • Provide a complete, brief response to the entire audience • Close by reaffirming speaking goal • Pause briefly before recognizing next questioner • Example: Respond to Q&A
Taking StockPractice Responding to Questions • To gain confidence, practice when responding to questions asked by family, friends, teachers • With which parts do you feel confident? • Where do you need improvement?
Responding to QuestionsWhen No One Asks • Give audience time to think of questions • Count to ten. • Provide additional information • Ask the audience a question
Responding to QuestionsWhen You Don’t Know the Answer • Admit you don’t know • Make an education response • Ask for audience assistance • Turn the question back to the questioner • Offer to follow-up and get back later
Taking Stock • Notice how teachers, and public figures respond to questions • What do you observe that you would like to avoid? • What practice would you borrow?
The Proper Preparation and Format of Your notes • Enables access to information at a glance • Allowing concentration on audience • When necessary,make adjustments to content or organization
The Proper Presentation and Format of Your notes Tips • Use note cards or one 81/2 X 11 sheet • Write on one side only • Except for quotations, confine notes to key words and phrases—no complete sentences • Leave white space for key words and phrases • Number notecards • As you practice, reduce content
Managing Practice Sessions • “Practice makes perfect.” Tips • Practice “out loud” • End your speech as many times as you begin • Mark trouble spots on notes to rework • Practice in a mirror – maintain eye contact with yourself • Do not memorize your presentation
Taking Stock • Pencil practice times into your calendar • Practice in the speech-giving environment • Note gains and areas still needing work
Delivery Decisions • “Delivery”: ways you communicate with audience • Delivery includes: • Proxemics: use of space • Kinesics: eye contact, facial expression, gestures, and posture • Physical Appearance: attire and appearance Paralanguage: use of voice to give meaning
Delivery DecisionsProxemics: Managing Space • Position for eye contact, seeing visuals and to operate technical equipment • In smaller space, position allowing eye contact with greatest number • Adjust to build connections with listeners: • When discussing personal issues, move closer; with impersonal issues, move away. • Adjust with structure of presentation: • To establish a connection, move closer during your introduction and conclusion Example:Proxemics
Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Managing Your Gestures • Align speech and gestures • not “what” you say, but “how” you say it, • Consider eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, posture
Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Eye Contact Eye contact is important: • creates connection with audience • signals willingness to communicate • increases value of message • allows awareness of audience responses
Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Eye Contact Cont. In small spaces: • Make eye contact with everyone in room initially • After initial contact, maintain prolonged eye contact • Brief eye contact-- appear unsure of yourself Example: Eye Contact
Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Eye Contact Cont. In large spaces: • Initially maintain eye contact with small group, such as the front row • Maintain eye contact with specific groups relevant to content • Avoid gazing at a general area of audience
Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Facial Expression • Facial Expression is importance • audience listens speech and watches facial expression • Facial expression should be consistent with what being said • Example: Facial Expression
Taking Stock • Are your facial expression consistent with your message? • When experiencing emotions, notice your facial expression • As you speak, look at listeners’ faces • Are expressions appropriate?
Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Gestures • Gestures complement verbal messages: illustrate, emphasize, clarify, or even substitute for verbal messages • To use gestures meaningfully: • Use fewer gestures • Use larger gestures • Use slower gestures • Gesture towards the audience • Let gestures result naturally • Example: Gestures
Taking Stock • Aware of your gestures? • Video tape yourself speaking for 3-4 minutes • Watch your tape, focusing on gestures • Do they help or hinder? • Use guidelines of last slide to make gestures more effective
Delivery DecisionsKinesics: Posture • Posture is the first thing audience notices • Good posture cmes from constant practice. • Display “relaxed alertness”, not stiff or contrived. • Behind a lectern, stand straight and tall • Example: Posture
Taking Stock • Walk across a room, balancing a book on your head
Delivery DecisionsParalanguage • Paralanguage: power of the voice • Your voice: • Gives meaning to your words • Makes it easier to hear and understand message • Influences audience attitude toward you and ability to influence them. • Example: Paralanguage
Delivery DecisionsParalanguage • Guides for effective paralanguage: • Avoid nonverbal utterances such as “um” • Avoid random hesitations • Speak in a volume slightly louder than needed • Vary volume to create emotional dimension • Pronounce words • Talk slightly faster than “normal” • Pause before/after important words or ideas
Taking Stock • Read aloud a food label • Incorporate paralanguage guides so meaning of the food label changes paralanguage
Pathos • Pathos: appealing to audience attitudes, beliefs, values, and emotions • Identify these qualities of audience so they will be receptive and respond positively
Pathos • Two theories guide pathos: • Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger) • Balance Theory (Heider)
Pathos Cognitive Dissonance Theory: experience discord when beliefs are inconsistent with behaviors • Seek ways to account for inconsistencies to eliminate dissonance
Pathos Balance Theory: tensions between or within people are reduced through self persuasion or persuasion of other
Audience Analysis • Profile audience to identify important qualities to eliminate inconsistencies and connecting with audience • Audience members are similar and differ from each other
Audience Analysis: Similarities • Four events must occur to educate or persuading audience: • Attract attention • Encourage involvement • Allow time to process information • Establish relevance of topic/issue to audience
Audience Analysis: SimilaritiesAttract Attention • Emphasize importance of issue – to “tune in” • Appeal to audience emotions • Emotional appeals as important as thoughts in influencing opinions(Goleman)
Taking Stock Is the issue of importance to audience? • What emphasizes the importance of issue to audience? • When will you establish importance of issue? • How to appeal to your listeners’ emotions? • When will you appeal to your listeners’ emotions?
Audience Analysis: SimilaritiesDevelop Involvement • Attract attention, then confirm their involvement by: • Establishing common experience or concern with audience • In relation to issue, in what areas is there agreement?
Taking Stock • List common experience and opinions with audience members • Develop a list of quotes, experiences related to individuals in audience • Insert these references related to points in speech
Audience Analysis: SimilaritiesAllowing Time to Process Information Provide processing time by: • Keeping main points to minimum; don’t overload. • Provide opportunities for audience to actively participate
Taking Stock • Identify key points essential for audience to hear • Between two and five key points • List ways to paraphrase points: statistics, quotes, experiences, examples • How to involve your audience? • List methods: brief discussion, Q&A