immigration expansion and sectional conflict 1840 1848 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict 1840-1848 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict 1840-1848

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 38
Download Presentation

Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict 1840-1848 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

tad-phillips
128 Views
Download Presentation

Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict 1840-1848

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Immigration, Expansion, and Sectional Conflict 1840-1848 Chapter 13

  2. Newcomers and Natives • Immigration Statistics • 1840-1860 = 4.2 million • 1845-1854 = 3 million • Largest influx in US history (pop. proportion) • Mainly Irish, German • ¾ Irish or German • Reasons for Expectations • Religious freedom • Mormons, Quakers • Economic opportunity • American “Utopia” • Reality • Embarkation • Process difficult • Expensive • swindlers • Farming problems • Lacked capital • Different that European Farming • Reality • Lived in cities • Worked in factories

  3. Patterns • Irish • Boarded at Liverpool • “Coffin” ships • No $ for farming • Physically weak • Clustered in NE, NY, PA, NJ • 2 surges • 1815s – War of 1812 • 1845-1850s – Potato Famine • Bottom of workforce • Mainly factories • Domestic servants • Conflict • Free blacks • Whites • Norwegians • Wisconsin • farmers • Germans • Cotton trade in New Orleans • Settled Upper Miss., Ohio River Valley • Didn’t support slavery • Wide range of social classes/occupations • Skilled tradesmen • Easily found jobs • 25% farmers • Culture • Common language • German unity • Lots of voluntary associations • Diversity promoted solidarity • Economically self-sufficient • Resentment • Economic success • clannishness

  4. Unrest in America • Anti-Catholicism • Irish immigration revived anti-catholic sentiments • Nativism • Societies • American Republicans • United Order of Americans • Order of Star Spangled Banner (know-nothings) • Fed on fear and discontent • Scared of “popery” • Threats to protestant jobs • Irish were hard-drinking and half-civilized • Labor Protest • George Henry Evans • National Reform Association • “Vote yourself a farm” • neo-Jeffersonian • Answer to “wage-slavery” • Appealed only to artisans • Labor Unions • Irish supported them • Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) • Mass. Supreme courts • Trade unions not illegal • Tensions • Ethnic and religious issues

  5. Immigrant Politics • Immigrants starting to become politically active • Supported Democrats • Feared for jobs • More sympathetic to working class • Values of Whigs threatened immigrants • Importance of National issues

  6. The West and Beyond • The Far West • Adams-Onis Treaty 1819 • Oregon still vague • Western Trade • Trading centers on west coast • 1790s-1820s – exchange of goods • 1820s- Hudson Bay Company • Beaver Trade- Colorado, Utah • Santa Fe Trail • Trade with Mexico from St. Louis • Panic of 1837- needed silver • Growing tensions • Land/religion • American Settlement of Texas to 1835 • 1820- US settlements in Eastern Texas • Welcoming • Mexico encouraged settlement • Protection against Indians • Mission had failed • Empresarios- Stephen Austin • Reversal • Closed Texas and forbid slavery • More white farmers than Mexicans • Concerns • Santa Anna

  7. US Population 1840

  8. Remember the Alamo • Texas Revolution • 1836 • Stephen Austin • Santa Anna invades 1835 • 1836- San Antonio • The Alamo • 187 die • Sam Houston • “Remember the Alamo” • Lone Star Republic established 1836 • American Settlement in Cali, New Mexico, and Oregon • Increased immigration • American culture, not native

  9. Mormons • Movement westward • Persecution • Death of Joseph Smith in Missouri • Brigham Young leads Mormons to desert • Little persecution • Not really inhabited • By 1846: 12,000 in Utah • Developed irrigation system • Annexed to US: 1850 • Mormon War:1857

  10. Politics of Expansion Should US annex Texas? 1840-42: main issue still economy Whig Ascendency William Henry Harrison 1840 Controlled House and Senate Henry Clay’s American System Repealed Independent Treasury Protective tariffs Tyler dashes hopes of Whigs Disaster for Whigs Vetoed: National bank- 1841 Banking bill Postponing of tariff reduction

  11. Expansion • Maine • 1842 • Daniel Webster • Webster-Ashburton Treaty • Texas • Issue of Slavery • 1843 • Propaganda campaign for annexation of Texas • 1844 • President Tyler, John C. Calhoun send treaty to congress for annexation • Defeated in Senate • 1845 Congress approves joint resolution to admit Texas as a state

  12. Election of 1844 • Nominees • Democrats • Martin Van Buren • Opposed slavery • Whigs • Henry Clay • Proslavery, proannexation • The “Dark Horse” • James K. Polk, Tennessee • “fifty-four forty or fight!” • Appealed to westerners and southerners • Results • Polk wins electoral • VERY close popular vote • Quickly confirms expansionism with inaugural address

  13. Manifest Destiny • John O’ Sullivan • Invoked God, divine mission • Superiority of white culture • Called on Americans to resist foreign powers limiting out destiny • Pushed by: • Nationalism • Population increase • Rapid economic development • Technological advances • Reform ideals • Solutions • To agricultural issues • Preserve identity, values • Anti-factories • Jefferson’s worries void • Polk and Oregon • US claimed based on: • Discovery of Columbia River • Lewis and Clark expedition • Fur trade established by Astor • Oregon Fever • Threats • British • Claim- Sir Francis Drake 1579 • “All or nothing” • 49th parallel • Negotiations • Come discontent • Ratification • 1846, Senate • Pushed by war in Mexico

  14. Oregon Trail • Overland Trails -4 month journey -Difficult travel -Donner party, 1846 -Increased cooperation -1841 wagon trains begin -1843 over 1,000

  15. Mexican- American War • Origins • Failure of Mexico to pay $2 million in debt • Animosity • Mexican fears of US domination • 1845 • Senate ratifies Annexation • Polk’s actions • Supports Texans claims to Rio Grande River • Moved Troops to Corpus Christi, under Zachary Taylor • Wants California • War • Negotiations • John Slidell • Government too weak • Santa Anna troops attack • Polk declares war • Opposition • John C. Calhoun, Whigs • War of 1812, “patriots” • Expectations • Mexico would win • Army 4X larger than US army • US didn’t expect Mexicans to fight

  16. Mexican-American War • Leaders • Zachary “old rough and ready” Taylor • Buena Vista victory, 1847 • Col. Stephen Kearny • New Mexico, California • Gen. Winfield Scott • Took over for Taylor • Vera Cruz, Mexico City victories, 1847 • John D. Sloat • New Mexico, California • John C. Fremont • California rebellion • Bear-flag Republic, 1846 • Success • Mexico City 1847 • Led by Scott • Heroes: • Robert E. Lee • Ulysses S. Grant • Advantages • Santa Anna’s mistakes • Superior artillery, military organization • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo • 1848 • Mexico paid $15 million • Ratified 1848, senate • Opposition: Whigs, Democrats

  17. Problems on the horizon • Sectional conflict • Polk restored Independent Treasury • Jacksonian policies • Tariff of 1846 • Slashes duties • Vetoes Rivers and Harbors Bill 1846 • Slavery debate • Wilmot Proviso • 1847 • No slavery in new territories • Defeated in senate (passed house 2X) • Proviso’s Problems • Brings up discussion of slavery again • Free-Labor party emerges • Calhoun questions constitutionality of prohibiting slavery in new territories • Northerners defend by quoting Land Ordinance of 1787 and Missouri Compromise

  18. Manifest Destiny to the South • Ostend Manifesto • Polk offered to buy Cuba from Spain for $100 million dollars • Spain refused • 1852- secret treaty to buy Spain • Too much anger in US, Northerners think “pro-slavery” • Walker Expedition • William Walker led group into Baja California in 1853 • unsuccessful • Tried to take Nicaragua 1855 • Recognized by US • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 1850 • Ambition to build canal in Central America • Treaty b/w Great Britain and U.S. • Neither nation would take exclusive control of canal and route in Central America • Gadsden Purchase • 1853 • Southwest • Arizona, New Mexico border • Land for railroad • $10 million dollars

  19. Election of 1848 • Problems for the Whigs: • Polk’s Policies successful • Independent treasury • Low tarrifs • Problem’s for Democrats • Wilmot Proviso • Nominees • Democrats • Lewis Cass • “Squatter Sovereignty” • Whigs • Zachary Taylor • War hero with no platform • Southern slaveholder • Major Issue • Slavery • Barnburners- NY • “Conscience” Whigs • Free Soil Party • Free trade, free labor, free speech, free men • Nominate Martin Van Buren • Outcome • Taylor victorious • Free Soil party has strong grass-roots showing • Sends message to Democrats and Whigs

  20. Gold Rush • 1848 • John Marshall discovers Gold in Sierra Nevada mts. • 9 days before Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo • Technological Developments • Hydraulic mining operations • Consequences • Population of California • 1848: 15,000 • 1852: 250,000 • Culture clash • Diverse mix of cultures, people • Chinese discrimination • Slavery • Should California allow it? • Violence • Committees of vigilance • Crowding, disease, fire, rowdiness

  21. Gold Rush 1849