territorial expansion and sectional crisis n.
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Territorial Expansion and Sectional Crisis

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 43

Territorial Expansion and Sectional Crisis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Territorial Expansion and Sectional Crisis. AP Review: 1840’s through the 1870’s. Manifest Destiny. What is “manifest destiny”? Texas Annexation California and the Oregon Territory President Polk and the War with Mexico Slavery and the Wilmot Proviso Expansion continues.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Territorial Expansion and Sectional Crisis' - annot

Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
territorial expansion and sectional crisis

Territorial Expansion and Sectional Crisis

AP Review: 1840’s through the 1870’s

manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • What is “manifest destiny”?
  • Texas Annexation
  • California and the Oregon Territory
  • President Polk and the War with Mexico
  • Slavery and the Wilmot Proviso
  • Expansion continues . . .
american culture in the mid 1800 s
American Culture in the mid-1800’s
  • National literature, art and architecture
  • Utopian experiments
  • Reform movements
    • Roles of women
    • Abolitionism
    • Temperance
    • Mental health
    • Education
the 50s a decade of crisis
The ‘50s: A Decade of Crisis
  • Compromise of 1850
  • Fugitive Slave Act and Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act and the realignment of parties
    • Demise of the Whigs
    • Emergence of Republican Party
  • Dred Scott
the 50s a decade of crisis1
The ‘50s: A Decade of Crisis
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
  • John Brown and his raid
  • Election of 1860
  • The secession crisis
causes of the civil war
Causes of the Civil War
  • Continuing Sectional Struggles
  • Henry Clay’s great compromises
    • 1820 and 1850
  • The “Peculiar Institution”
    • Growing voice of the abolitionists
    • The Dred Scott decision
war strategies and assessments
War Strategies and Assessments
  • United States (Union) Military Goals
    • Blockade southern ports
    • Control of Mississippi River down to New Orleans
    • Take Richmond - Confederate capital
war strategies and assessments1
War Strategies and Assessments
  • Union Strengths and Advantages
    • Population
    • Industrial Capacity
    • Wealth
    • Superior Transportation
    • Military Forces
war strategies and assessments2
War Strategies and Assessments
  • Confederate States Military Goals
    • Defend new nation
    • Enlist European Assistance
war strategies and assessments3
War Strategies and Assessments
  • Confederate Advantages
    • Emotional edge - fighting for a cause and defense of their homes
    • Defending is easier than invading
    • Better officers and soldiers
significant successes east
Significant Successes - East
  • Bull Run, July 1861 (Manassas) - Union defeated by “Stonewall” Jackson
    • McClellan appointed commander of Army of the Potomac
  • McClellan attacks Richmond, March and April 1862 - fails
  • Second Battle of Bull Run, August 1862 - Union supplies destroyed
  • Battle of Antietam, September 1862 - Bloodiest day of the Civil War
significant battles east
Significant Battles - East
  • Merrimack (Confederate) and the Monitor (Union)
    • March 1862


significant battles east1
Significant Battles - East
  • Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863 - Confederates hoped for a victory on Northern soil, but due to supplies and casualties retreat
  • Sherman’s March to the Sea, 1864 - 1865 - ends in marching to Columbia and burns it to the ground
significant battles west
Significant Battles - West
  • Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, February 1862 - Union gunboats defeat Confederates
  • Battle of Shiloh, TN, April 1862 - Union defeat after 2 day battle
  • Battle of Vicksburg, MS, July 1863 - Grant lays seige to Vicksburg in a surround and starve strategy successfully
    • a turning point in the war as the Union re-took the Mississippi
the gettysburg address
The Gettysburg Address
  • November 1863
  • Ceremony to honor fallen Union soldiers
  • Edward Everett gives a 2 hour speech
  • President invited to give brief remarks - 2 minutes
  • Milestone in expanding liberty to all
slavery comes to an end
Slavery comes to an end
  • Lincoln’s campaign concerns - hesitation
  • Confiscation Acts (1861 and 1862): gave the Union the power to confiscate enemy “property” and freed those slaves
  • Emancipation Proclamation (1862): by executive order freed all slaves in the states at war with the Union
  • Thirteenth Amendment (1865): amending the Constitution was necessary to negate phrases that legitimized slavery and to abolish slavery in all the states
lee surrenders at appomatox
Lee Surrenders at Appomatox
  • April 1865
  • Defeated Confederate troops surrounded by the Union at Appomatox Court House Lee and Grant meet to discuss terms
  • South takes horses and mules home, would not be punished as traitors if they agreed to follow the laws
  • North agreed to feed the remaining Confederate troops
political economic and social issues during the war
Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War
  • Morrill Tariff Act, 1861- increased import fees
  • National Banking Act, 1863 - standardized currency backed by government bonds
    • investors also obliged to buy a percentage of bonds
political economic and social issues during the war1
Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War
  • Draft Law
    • 1863
    • allowed for substitutes
    • $300 exemption
    • New York riot in July protesting the new law
  • Suspension of Civil Liberties
    • Suspension of writ of habeas corpus
political economic and social issues during the war2
Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War
  • Greenback Policy
    • printing money to finance war
    • Income tax levied in 1861
  • Homestead Act
    • 1862
    • free land in west
political economic and social issues during the war3
Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War
  • Women in the War
    • Clara Barton - nursing, founded Red Cross
    • Dorothea Dix - Superintendent of Nurses,
    • Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell - medical school graduate, U.S. Sanitary Comission
political economic and social issues during the war4
Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War
  • African Americans in the War
    • 180,000 served in the Union Army
    • 54th Massachusetts Regiment - Battle of Fort Wagner, Charleston
political economic and social issues during the war5
Political, Economic and Social Issues During the War
  • Election of 1864
  • Lincoln v. McClellan
    • Union Party - Republicans and War Democrats
    • Peace Democrats and Copperheads
  • A redefinition of social, economic and political relationships between the North and the South
  • An effort to repair the damage to the South and to restore the Southern states to the Union
the war destroyed
2/3 southern shipping

9000 miles of railroads

1/3 of all livestock

100s of miles of roads

Value of southern property declined by 70%

buildings, factories, bridges, etc. destroyed.

The War Destroyed . . .
the human toll
The Human Toll
  • North
    • 364,000 (38,000 African Americans
  • South
    • 260,000
    • 1/5 adult white men; 1 of 3 southern men were killed or wounded
southern hardships
Southern Hardships
  • Black Southerners
    • 4 million freed slaves, homeless, jobless and hungry
  • Plantation Owners
    • loss of $3mil. worth of slave labor
    • worthless Confederate currency
    • $100 mil. Worth of southern plantations and cotton seized through the Captured and Abandoned Property Act
  • Poor White Settlers
    • could not find work due to new competition
    • began migrating to the western frontiers
  • Lincoln’s Death
    • April 14, 1865
lincoln v johnson

10% Plan - quick reunion

Radical Republicans demanded more strict measures in the Wade-Davis Bill

Lincoln and Congress blocked each other’s plans until Lincoln’s death


small farmer’s advocate with a hatred for plantation owners

restrictive policy excluding rich southerners from political participation

undermined his own policy by liberally pardoning southerners, even Confederate politicians

Lincoln v. Johnson
congressional reconstruction
Congressional Reconstruction
  • While one of the goals of the war was to free slaves, once southern states met the Reconstruction plan requirements, they reverted back to their old ways
    • Black Codes - limited freedmen’s rights
      • curfews, vagrancy laws, labor contracts, land restrictions
congressional reconstruction1
Congressional Reconstruction
  • 14th Amendment 1866
    • first cornerstone of Congressional Reconstruction
    • gave citizenship and due process of law to all persons born in the U.S.
    • 3/5 clause abolished. States may exclude blacks from voting, but their representation may be decreased if they do so
    • Confederate officeholders barred from political office
14th amendment
14th Amendment
  • Reactions
    • President Johnson and the Democrats denounced the amendment and lobbied against
    • Republicans realized that their leadership could achieve meaningful change
    • Some northerners supported harsh sanctions against the former Confederacy
reconstruction act 1867
Reconstruction Act, 1867
  • High point of Congressional Reconstruction
  • dissolved Southern state governments and placed them under military rule
  • Enfranchised the freedmen and required new state constitutions drafted by elections by both blacks and whites
  • Required state legislatures to ratify the 14th Amendment to fully re-enter the Union
15th amendment
15th Amendment
  • Last major piece of the Congressional Reconstruction
  • Prohibited the exclusion of male adults from voting based on race or having been slaves
  • passed by Congress in 1869 and ratification became a precondition for reentering the Union
impeaching andrew johnson
Impeaching Andrew Johnson
  • Reconstruction Act brought increased tension between Congress and the President
  • Congress passed several laws to bring the President under control
  • 1867 Tenure of Office Act to keep Johnson from firing Sec. Of War Edwin Stanton
  • Johnson fired Stanton anyway
  • Republican leaders started impeachment proceedings against Johnson
  • Johnson’s conviction narrowly defeated
the freedmen
The Freedmen
  • Finding family became the first priority of many
  • black churches, institutions established and flourished
  • Freedman’s Bureau
    • first federally financed social service program
    • set up over 4000 elementary schools
    • provided assistance to more than just African-Americans
political involvement
Political Involvement
  • Participated in Reconstruction legislatures as Republicans
  • Some black members of Congress elected and sent to Washington
  • often pursued reconciliation policies with white Southerners to no avail
  • also tried to achieve key black demands, such as land reform and social equality
carpetbaggers and scalawags
“Carpetbaggers” and “Scalawags”
  • Most white southerners blamed Republicans and their alleged corruption
  • white Northerners who immigrated South were called “carpetbaggers”
  • white Southern Republicans were called “scalawags”
  • Although mostly ungrounded, these charges and stereotypes proved extremely persistent
violent resistance
Violent Resistance
  • Many white southerners resisted with violence
  • vigilante groups intimidated, attacked and killed freedmen and destroyed their institutions
  • Ku Klux Klan - outlawed, but little else done to protect their victims
  • New labor system emerged in cotton economy
  • sharecroppers rented land and paid the owner with a share of the crop - 50%
  • both blacks and whites participated
  • system led many sharecroppers into perpetual debt
supreme court barriers
Supreme Court Barriers
  • US v. Reese, 1876 - allowed the disenfranchisement of blacks, such as making up voting requirements that freedmen could not achieve
  • Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 - allowed for segregation in almost all aspects of society
  • The decisions allowed Southerners to construct a “Jim Crow” system of de facto laws
waning republican support
Waning Republican Support
  • 1870s - Radical Republicans lost influence and lost interest
  • Liberal Republicans broke away to protest the scandals of the Grant administration
  • 1873 economic depression refocused Northern goals
compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877
  • 1876 Election showed a narrow victory for the Democratic candidate, Tilden
  • Republicans contested in three states
  • Compromise reached whereas the Democrats would accept Hayes as the president if the Republicans ceased resistance to home rule in the South
  • Reconstruction ends