CHAPTER 13 IMMIGRATION, EXPANSION, & SECTIONAL CONFLICT (1840-1848)
Expansion brought sectional antagonism to the boiling point, split the Democratic party in the late 1840’s, and set the nation on the path to the Civil War. Explain the following statement with evidence:
Causes: Religious freedom for Mormons & Norwegians; Economic opportunity for Germans, British, & Irish. Most were Irish & German. Hucksters Harsh voyage Many lacked capital needed to start a farm. Germans were typically skilled and many were farmers; settled further inland. IMMIGRATION: EXPECTATIONS & REALITIES
Famous German immigrants- German neighborhoods, newspapers, doctors, lawyers, etc….self-sufficient Irish were Catholic, poor & unskilled and lived in eastern cities to work. (factories, canals, RR) Irish enemies: free blacks, abolitionists, & nativists. Why? (continued)
Awful Disclosures of the Hotel Dieu Nunnery Nativism & the Know-Nothing Party (formerly Order of the Star Spangled Banner) Labor Protests Commonwealth v. Hunt Immigrants were fully committed to Democratic Party. Why? Anti-Immigrant Fervor
Democrats • Jackson supporters • Immigrants • “Common man” • Anti-reform • Whigs • Old Federalists • Anti-Jacksonians • Reformers Political support
The west • Adams-Onis Treaty 1819 • Oregon claimed by Russia, Britain, & U.S. • Tejas (Texas) owned by Mexico. • How does the U.S. end up with both?
Causes for Texas migration Why did Mexico close the border to U.S. immigrants? 1836: 30,000 Americans, 5,000 slaves, 4,000 Mexicans Slavery Causes of Texas Revolution 1. Events leading to Texas Revolution 1836
1836- rebellions suppressed by Santa Anna Sam Houston Alamo & Goliad Battle of San Jacinto Treaty of Velasco Texas Republic: Should the U.S. annex? 2. Texas revolution 1836 (Texas independence)
3. Annexation of Texas, 1845 • Yes- manifest destiny • No- could lead to war with Mexico & there was the issue of slavery • Tyler enters in 1841 after death of William Henry Harrison • Tyler loses election of 1844, but leaves with a legacy: Texas
(continued) • 1844- dark horse candidate James K. Polk (Democrat) was an expansionist. • Tyler considered Polk’s win as a signal to push annexation. • Tyler persuaded Congress to pass a joint resolution which only required a simple majority. Texas annexed!
4. Mexican War 1846-1848 • Causes- $2 million debt, Alamo & Goliad, Texas Annexation, border dispute • Polk’s decision to start a war (& offer to purchase CA, NM) • Lincoln’s “Spot Resolution” • Major military leaders: Zachary Taylor & Winfield Scott
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: U.S. gets Texas, border settled at Rio Grande, and bought New Mexico & California for $15 million. Why did we pay for territory? Why didn’t we take all of Mexico? With the vast amount of additional land, what controversial issue arises? SLAVERY! 5. Results of the mexican war
Wilmot Proviso • David Wilmot of Pennsylvania. • Proposed that slavery be prohibited in newly acquired territories. • Southern Dems opposed on basis that it was south of the Missouri Compromise. • Passed in the House, but not the Senate. • Caused a split in the Democratic Party along sectional lines. • Could Congress prohibit slavery? ATTEMPT TO SETTLE ISSUE OF SLAVERY & EXPANSION
6. Oregon • 1840-1848: 11,500 Americans travelled to Oregon territory. • Oregon issue was significant in election of 1844: “54◦40’ or FIGHT!” • Polk compromised at the 49th parallel. • Angered western Dems.
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