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Chapter 1: Organization of the Human Body

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  1. Chapter 1:Organization of the Human Body

  2. Overview

  3. Key Terms

  4. Learning Outcomes Define the terms anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Describe the organization of the body from chemicals to the whole organism. List 11 body systems and give the general function of each. Studies of the Human Body

  5. Studies of the Human Body Anatomy • Study of body structure • Dissection Physiology • Study of body function Pathology • Study of disease

  6. Studies of the Human Body Levels of Organization

  7. Figure 1-1 Levels of organization. What do specialized groups of cells form?

  8. Studies of the Human Body Body Systems (organized by function) • Protection, support, and movement • Integumentary • Skeletal • Muscular • Coordination and control • Nervous • Endocrine

  9. Studies of the Human Body Body Systems (organized by function) • Circulation and immunity • Cardiovascular • Lymphatic • Energy supply and fluid balance • Respiratory • Digestive • Urinary • Production of offspring • Reproductive

  10. Studies of the Human Body

  11. Studies of the Human Body Checkpoints 1-1 What are the studies of body structure and body function called? 1-2 What do organs working together combine to form?

  12. ? Studies of the Human Body Pop Quiz 1.1 Which is the most suitable field of study for an anatomist? • The structure of the stomach • The mechanism of protein digestion • Stomach cancer • Anabolic reactions

  13. ? Studies of the Human Body Pop Quiz Answer 1.1 Which is the most suitable field of study for an anatomist? • The structure of the stomach • The mechanism of protein digestion • Stomach cancer • Anabolic reactions

  14. ? Studies of the Human Body Pop Quiz 1.2 There are numerous levels of organization in the body. The correct order from simplest to most complex is • Organ, tissue, cell, organism, system • Cell, tissue, organ, system, organism • System, cell, organ, organism, tissue • Cell, system, tissue, organ, organism

  15. ? Studies of the Human Body Pop Quiz Answer 1.2 There are numerous levels of organization in the body. The correct order from simplest to most complex is • Organ, tissue, cell, organism, system • Cell, tissue, organ, system, organism • System, cell, organ, organism, tissue • Cell, system, tissue, organ, organism

  16. ? Studies of the Human Body Pop Quiz 1.3 Which system is comprised of bones and joints? • Skeletal system • Nervous system • Immune system • Muscular system

  17. ? Studies of the Human Body Pop Quiz Answer 1.3 Which system is comprised of bones and joints? • Skeletal system • Nervous system • Immune system • Muscular system

  18. Learning Outcomes Define metabolism and name the two types of metabolic reactions. Define and give examples of homeostasis. Explain how negative feedback maintains homeostasis. Metabolism and Its Regulation

  19. Metabolism and Its Regulation Types of Metabolism • Catabolism • Reactions that break substances down • Used to form ATP • Anabolism • Reactions that build substances up • Often require ATP

  20. Figure 1-2 Metabolism. What type of metabolism does the digestive system do?

  21. Metabolism and Its Regulation Homeostasis • Body’s maintenance of internal balance • Body fluid balance is especially important • Extracellular fluid • Blood plasma • Lymph • Fluid between cells • Intracellular fluid • Fluid within cells

  22. Metabolism and Its Regulation Homeostasis • Negative feedback • Critical for maintaining our health • Keeps body conditions within a normal range by reversing any upward or downward shift

  23. Figure 1-3 Negative feedback. How does a thermostat respond to a room temperature that falls below normal?

  24. Figure 1-4 Negative feedback and body temperature. How does the brain respond to an increase in body temperature?

  25. Figure 1-5 Negative feedback in the endocrine system. What happens to insulin levels after a meal?

  26. Metabolism and Its Regulation Effects of Aging • Gradual changes in all body systems • Some changes are harmless. • Wrinkles and gray hair • Some changes may result in injury and disease. • Decreased kidney function • Loss of bone mass • Formation of deposits within blood vessels

  27. Metabolism and Its Regulation

  28. Metabolism and Its Regulation Checkpoints 1-3 What are the two types of metabolic reactions and what happens during each? 1-4 Compare the locations of extracellular and intracellular fluids. 1-5 What is the main method used to maintain homeostasis?

  29. ? Metabolism and Its Regulation Pop Quiz 1.4 A reaction in which simple compounds are assembled into more complex compounds is most accurately described as a(n) • Anabolic reaction • Catabolic reaction • Homeostatic reaction • Metabolic reaction

  30. ? Metabolism and Its Regulation Pop Quiz Answer 1.4 A reaction in which simple compounds are assembled into more complex compounds is most accurately described as a(n) • Anabolic reaction • Catabolic reaction • Homeostatic reaction • Metabolic reaction

  31. ? Metabolism and Its Regulation Pop Quiz 1.5 Which example illustrates negative feedback? • Decreased blood sugar stimulates release of a hormone that further decreases blood sugar. • Decreased room temperature activates a thermostat, which further decreases heat output by a furnace. • A rise in blood calcium levels stimulates release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels. • A rise in estrogen levels stimulates production of a hormone that stimulates estrogen production.

  32. Metabolism and Its Regulation Pop Quiz Answer 1.5 Which example illustrates negative feedback? • Decreased blood sugar stimulates release of a hormone that further decreases blood sugar. • Decreased room temperature activates a thermostat, which further decreases heat output by a furnace. • A rise in blood calcium levels stimulates release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels. • A rise in estrogen levels stimulates production of a hormone that stimulates estrogen production.

  33. Learning Outcomes List and define the main directional terms for the body. List and define three planes of division of the body. Body Directions

  34. Body Directions Directional Terms • Healthcare professionals use standardized terms to describe body directions. • Superior and inferior • Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) • Medial and lateral • Proximal and distal • All descriptions assume that the body is in anatomic position.

  35. Figure 1-6 Directional terms. What is the scientific name for the position in which the figures are standing?

  36. Body Directions Planes of Division • Anatomists can divide the body along three planes, each of which is a cut through the body in a different direction • Frontal plane • Sagittal plane • Transverse plane

  37. Figure 1-7 Planes of division. Which plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts? Which plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts?

  38. Body Directions Planes of Division • Some additional terms are used to describe tissues and CT or MRI images. • Cross section • Longitudinal section • Oblique section

  39. Figure 1-8 Tissue sections. Which section would cut a blood vessel in half along its long axis?

  40. Body Directions

  41. Body Directions Checkpoints 1-6 What term describes a location closer to an origin, such as the elbow in comparison to the wrist? 1-7 What are the three planes in which the body can be cut?

  42. ? Body Directions Pop Quiz 1.6 Which term means closer to the body’s midline? • Distal • Lateral • Medial • Transverse

  43. ? Body Directions Pop Quiz Answer 1.6 Which term means closer to the body’s midline? • Distal • Lateral • Medial • Transverse

  44. ? Body Directions Pop Quiz 1.7 A plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is the • Sagittal plane • Proximal plane • Frontal plane • Midsagittal plane

  45. ? Body Directions Pop Quiz Answer 1.7 A plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is the • Sagittal plane • Proximal plane • Frontal plane • Midsagittal plane

  46. Learning Outcomes Name the subdivisions of the dorsal and ventral cavities. Name and locate the subdivisions of the abdomen. Cite some anterior and posterior body regions along with their common names. Body Cavities

  47. Body Cavities The body is divided into two main cavities. Dorsal Cavity • Two main subdivisions • Cranial cavity • Spinal cavity Ventral Cavity • Two main subdivisions separated by diaphragm • Thoracic cavity • Abdominopelvic cavity

  48. Figure 1-10 Body cavities, lateral view. Replace with Fig 1-10 Which cavity contains the diaphragm?

  49. Body Cavities Thoracic Cavity • Further subdivided • Pericardial cavity • Pleural cavity • Mediastinum

  50. Figure 1-11 The thoracic cavity. Which cavity contains the lung?