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The Human Body in Health and Disease. Medical Terminology Chapter 2. Anatomic Reference Systems. Are used to describe the location and functions of body parts. These reference systems include body planes, body directions, body cavities, and structural units.

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the human body in health and disease

The Human Body in Health and Disease

Medical Terminology

Chapter 2

anatomic reference systems
Anatomic Reference Systems
  • Are used to describe the location and functions of body parts. These reference systems include body planes, body directions, body cavities, and structural units.
  • Anatomy is the study of structures of the body.
Physiology is the study of the functions of these structures.
  • In the anatomic position, the individual is:
  • standing up so that the body is erect
  • facing forward
  • holding the arms to the sides
  • turning the hands with the palms toward the front.
body planes vertical
Body Planes - Vertical
  • A vertical plane is an up-and-down line that is at a right angle to the horizon.
  • The mid-sagittal plane, or midline, is the vertical plane that divides the body, from top to bottom, into equal right and left halves.
A sagittal plane is any vertical plane parallel to the midline that divides the body into unequal left and right portions.
  • The coronal plane is also known as the frontal plane. this is any vertical plane, at right angles to the sagittal plane, that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
body planes horizontal
Body Planes - Horizontal
  • A horizontal plane is a flat, crosswise line, like the horizon.
  • The transverse plane, also known as the “horizontal plane”, divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
  • It can be at the waist level or any other level across the body.
body directions
Body Directions
  • Ventral = front or belly side.
  • Dorsal = back of the body or organ.
  • Anterior = situated in the front; or forward part of the organ. For example, the stomach is located anterior to, or in front of, the pancreas.
posterior = situated in the back; or back part of an organ. For example, the pancreas is located posterior to, or in back of, the stomach.
  • superior = uppermost, above, or toward the head.
  • inferior = lowermost, below, or toward the feet.
cephalic = toward the head. (cephal = head, -ic = pertaining to).
  • caudal = toward the lower part (tail) of the body. (caud = tail; -al = pertaining to).
  • proximal = situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure.
  • distal – farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure.
medial = the direction toward or nearer the midline. Example: medial surface of knee is the inner side of the leg.
  • lateral – the direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline. Example: the lateral side of the knee is near the outside of the leg.
major body cavities
Major Body Cavities
  • The “dorsal” cavity protects the structures of the nervous system.
  • It is divided into two parts:
  • cranial cavity – located in the skull; protects the brain.
  • spinal cavity – located in the spinal column; protects the spinal cord.
“Homeostasis” means maintaining a constant, stable internal environment.
  • The “ventral” cavity contains many of the organs that maintain homeostasis.
  • It is divided into three parts:
  • thoracic cavity – (chest cavity) – protects the heart and lungs.
  • The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
abdominal cavity – contains the major organs of digestion. It is referred to simply as the “abdomen”.
  • pelvic cavity – the space formed by the pelvic (hip) bones. Contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems.
  • There is no division btw the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Together they form the abdominopelvic cavity.
The ventral cavity is divided into:
    • the thoracic cavity (chest cavity)
    • the abdominal cavity (abdomen)
    • the pelvic cavity
    • Together, the abdominal and pelvic cavities form the abdominopelvic cavity.
divisions of the abdomen
Divisions of the Abdomen
  • Near the first body, label it as “divisions of the abdomen”.
  • Describing where an organ or a pain is located is made easier by dividing the abdomen into four imaginary quadrants.
  • “Quadrant” means divided into four.
Label them:
  • right upper quadrant or RUQ
  • left upper quadrant or LUQ
  • right lower quadrant or RLQ
  • left lower quadrant or LLQ
regions of the thorax and abdomen
Regions of the Thorax and Abdomen
  • Another descriptive system divides the abdomen and lower portion of the thorax (chest) into 9 regions.
  • Near your second body diagram, add the label “regions of the thorax and abdomen”
The right and left hypochondriac regions are located on the top and sides and are covered by the lower ribs. The term “hypochondriac” means below or under the ribs.
  • It also means an individual with an abnormal and excessive concern about his or her health.
The epigastric region is located above the stomach, and between the hypochondriac regions.
  • “epigastric” means pertaining to the area above the stomach. “epi = above, gastr = stomach, -ic = pertaining to.
The right and left lumbar regions are located on the sides near the inward curve of the spine.
  • The umbilical region surrounds the “umbilicus” also known as the belly button or navel. The umbilicus is the pit in the center of the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord was attached to the fetus.
The right and left iliac regions are located on the sides over the hipbones. The flat curved hipbone is known as the “ilium”.
  • The hypogastricregion is located below the stomach. Hypo = below; gastric = pertaining to the stomach.
new word roots and meanings
New Word Roots and Meanings
  • aden/o = gland
  • adip/o = fat
  • arthr/o = joint
  • caud/o = tail
  • col/o = colon
  • cephal/o = head, or corona
  • cyt/o = cell
  • hepat/o = liver
hist/o = tissue
  • hyster/o = uterus
  • lapar/o = abdomen
  • nephr/o = kidney
  • oste/o = bone
  • path/o = disease
  • retr/o = behind, backward, in back of.
  • add: derm/o = skin
  • phleb/o = vein
  • chondr/o = cartilage
  • study of structures of the body
  • physiology
  • study of the functions of these structures
anatomic position
  • standing up, facing forward, arms at sides, palms toward front
  • midsagittal plane
  • divides body into equal right and left halves
sagittal plane
  • divides the body into unequal right and left halves
  • coronal plane
  • divides the body into front and back
transverse plane
  • divides the body into upper and lower portions.
  • ventral
  • front or belly side
  • back of body or organ
  • anterior
  • in the front or the forward part
  • posterior
  • in the back or the back part
  • uppermost, above, toward head
  • inferior
  • lowermost, below, toward feet
  • toward the head
  • caudal
  • toward the lower part of the body (tail)
  • nearest the midline of the body
  • distal
  • farthest from the midline
  • toward or nearest the midline; inside; inner aspect
  • lateral
  • nearer the side; away from the midline; outside surface
the nine regions of the thorax and abdomen:
  • right and left hypochondriac
  • epigastric
  • right and left lumbar
  • umbilical
  • right and left iliac
  • hypogastric
  • gland
  • adenitis:
  • inflammation of a gland
  • adenectomy: surgical removal of a gland
  • adenotomy: surgical incision into a gladn
  • fat
  • caud/o
  • tail; lower part of body
  • caudal:
  • pertaining to the tail
  • colon
  • colitis:
  • inflammation of the colon
  • colostomy:
  • new opening into the colon
  • colectomy:
  • surgical removal of the colon
  • head
  • cephalalgia:
  • headache
  • cephalodynia
  • headache
  • cell
  • cytology:
  • study of cells
  • cytologist:
  • a specialist who studies cells
  • hepatitis:
  • inflammation of the liver
  • hepatology:
  • study of the liver
  • hepatopathy:
  • disease of the liver
  • tissue
  • histology:
  • study of tissue
  • histologist:
  • one who studies tissue
  • uterus
  • hysterectomy:
  • surgical removal of the uterus
  • hysteritis:
  • inflammation of the uterus
  • abdomen
  • laparoscopy:
  • visual examination of the abdomen using a scope.
  • laparotomy:
  • incision into the abdomen
  • kidney
  • nephritis:
  • inflammation of the kidney
  • nephrectomy:
  • surgical removal of a kidney
  • nephropathy:
  • disease of a kidney
  • bone
  • osteomalacia:
  • abnormal softening of bone
  • osteoplasty:
  • surgical repair of bones
derm/o (or dermat/o):
  • skin
  • dermatitis:
  • inflammation of the skin
  • dermatology:
  • study of the skin
  • vein
  • phlebitis:
  • inflammation of a vein
  • phlebectomy:
  • surgical removal of a vein
  • cartilage
  • chondritis:
  • inflammation of cartilage
  • chondralgia:
  • pain in cartilage
the peritoneum
The Peritoneum
  • The peritoneum is the membrane that protects and supports the organs in the abdominal cavity. Thin, clear.
  • The parietal peritoneum is the outer layer of this membrane.
  • The visceral peritoneum is the inner layer of this membrane.
The mesentery is a layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine within the abdominal cavity.
  • The term retroperitoneal means behind the peritoneum.
  • Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum.
  • Ascites is an abnormal accumulation of clear or milky fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
Lapar/o means abdomen;
  • -scopy means visual examination.
  • So, the term for a visual examination of the inside of the abdomen is laparoscopy using a laparoscope.
  • This is the study of cells.
  • cell membrane – surrounds and protects the cell.
  • cytoplasm – the material within the cell that is not part of the nucleus.
  • nucleus – the structure that controls the activities of the cell and helps the cell divide.
The nucleus of each cell contains 46 chromosomes, in 23 pairs.
  • Sex cells (sperm and ovum) are also known as “gametes”, and are the only cells that do not have 46 chromosomes.
  • Chromosomes are organized into two long, coiled molecules of DNA.
Genes are the functional units of heredity. Each gene is a segment of DNA on a chromosome.
  • Each chromosome has about 100,000 genes.
terms related to genetics
Terms Related to Genetics
  • Genetics is the study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children and the role they play in disease and health.
  • Geneticist – is a specialist in genetics.
  • Genetic engineering is research to identify defective genes and study how to treat or replace them.
Genetic mutation – changes that occur with genes.
  • Genetic disorders – also known as hereditary disorders, are diseases or conditions caused by a defective gene. See pg 26 in book.
  • A congenital disorder is an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth; may be caused be a developmental disorder before birth, injuries during birth, premature birth, or pre-natal injuries.
  • Hist means tissue, and –ology means study of, so histology is the study of tissues.
four types of tissue
Four Types of Tissue
  • Epithelial – includes the epithelium and endothelium.
  • Connective – supports and connects organs. Includes adipose tissue (fat), loose connective tissue, and liquid connective tissue (blood and lymph).
Muscle tissue – with the ability to contract and relax.
  • Nerve tissue – reacts to stimuli; conducts impulses.
organs and body systems
Organs and Body Systems
  • An organ is an independent part of the body that performs a special function.
  • Tissues and organs are organized into systems.
  • So….tissues → organs → systems.
  • The study of disease is called:
  • pathology
  • The study of the causes of disease is called:
  • etiology
disease transmission
Disease Transmission
  • A communicable disease, also known as a contagious disease, is any disease transmitted from one person to another.
  • Contaminated means the possible presence of an infectious agent.
Bloodborne transmission is through contact with blood or body fluids that are contaminated with blood, or through sexual contact. Example: AIDS, hepatitis.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases and venereal diseases require person-to-person contact, or contact with lesions.
Airborne transmission occurs through respiratory droplets such as contact with material from a cough or sneeze. TB, flu, colds, measles.
  • Foodborne or waterborne transmission, also known as fecal/oral transmission, is caused by eating or drinking food or water that is contaminated.
An epidemiologist specializes in the study of outbreaks of diseases.
  • Endemic – presence of a disease within a population, group, or area. Example: the common cold.
  • Epidemic – sudden widespread outbreak of disease within a population
  • Pandemic – outbreak of disease over a large area; worldwide. Ex: AIDS.