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Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY . 3.1 3.2. BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY BASIC BODY SYSTEMS. Explain the relationship and function of cells, tissues and primary organs within the human body

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Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


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    1. Chapter 3ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 3.1 3.2 BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY BASIC BODY SYSTEMS Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | advance organizer

    2. Explain the relationship and function of cells, tissues and primary organs within the human body • Identify the structure, function and primary cosmetological significance, where appropriate, of 8 body systems Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | advance organizer

    3. 3.1 BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY CELLS TISSUES ORGANS BODY SYSTEMS Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | advance organizer

    4. Anatomy: study of organs and systems of the body 2 TYPES OF ANATOMY Microscopic Studies structures too small to see without aid of a microscope Gross Can be seen with the naked eye Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | advance organizer

    5. Physiology: study of the functions the organs and systems perform • physiology Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | Building blocks of the human body | CElls

    6. Cells: basic units of living matter (life) Protoplasm: gel-like substance containing water, salt and nutrients obtained from food THREE BASIC PARTS OF A CELLS • Nucleus • Cytoplasm • Cell Membrane Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | Building blocks of the human body | CElls

    7. Metabolism: chemical process in which cells receive nutrients for growth and reproduction 2 PHASES OF METABOLISM • Anabolism: building up larger molecules from smaller ones • Catabolism: practices that preserve the health of the community Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | Building blocks of the human body | CElls

    8. tissues Tissues: groups of cells of the same kind 5 PRIMARY TYPES OF TISSUE • Epithelial • Connective • Nerve • Muscular • Liquid Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | building blocks of the human body | tissues

    9. organs Organs: separate body structures that perform specific functions and are composed of 2 or more different tissues Brain Eyes Heart Lungs Stomach and Intestines Liver Kidneys Skin Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | building blocks of the human body | organs

    10. Body systems Systems: group of body structures and/or organs that together, perform functions for the body Circulatory Skeletal Muscular Nervous Digestive Excretory Respiratory Endocrine Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | building blocks of the human body | body systems

    11. Body systems Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | building blocks of the human body | body systems

    12. SELF-CHECK Answer the following questions: • T or F Muscles are the basic units of living matter. • T or F The epithelial tissue covers and protects body surfaces and internal organs. • The study of organs and systems of the body is called ________. • Another name for histology is ___________ ________. • The study of the functions of organs and systems of the body is called __________. Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | self-check

    13. SELF-CHECK • The study of the human body as seen with the naked eye is called ______ __________. • Cells are composed of a gel-like substance called ___________. • Cells make up _______, which make up organs. Organs make up ________. • A group of body structures that, together, perform one or more vital functions of the body is known as a _______. Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | self-check

    14. SELF-CHECK Answer the following questions: • T or F Muscles are the basic units of living matter. • T or F The epithelial tissue covers and protects body surfaces and internal organs. • The study of organs and systems of the body is called ________. • Another name for histology is ___________ ________. • The study of the functions of organs and systems of the body is called __________. anatomy microscopic anatomy physiology Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | self-check

    15. SELF-CHECK • The study of the human body as seen with the naked eye is called ______ __________. • Cells are composed of a gel-like substance called ___________. • Cells make up _______, which make up organs. Organs make up ________. • A group of body structures that, together, perform one or more vital functions of the body is known as a _______. gross anatomy protoplasm tissues systems system Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | self-check

    16. 3.2 BASIC BODY SYSTEMS The Skeletal System The Muscular System The Circulatory System The Nervous System The Digestive System The Excretory System The Respiratory System The Endocrine System The Reproductive System The Integumentary System Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | advance organizer

    17. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM • Physical foundation of the body • Composed of 206 bones of different shapes and sizes • Bones are attached to each other at movable or immovable joints • A joint is the point at which two or more bones are joined together Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | advance organizer

    18. Osteology: study of bones • Flat bones (ribs and skull) • Long bones (arms and legs) • Irregular bones (wrist, ankle, spinal column) Bones: • Composed of 2/3 mineral and 1/3 organic matter • Produce white and red blood cells • Store calcium • BONES Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

    19. Movement Attachment Protection Support Shape • FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

    20. The skull Skeleton of the head • Encloses and protects brain and primary sensory organs • Divided into 2 groups of bones • Cranium composed of 8 bones • Facial skeleton composed of 14 bones Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

    21. The cranium Parietal2 bones Frontal Occipital Temporal2 bones Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

    22. Nasal Bridge of the nose Facial skeleton Lacrimal Inner eye socket Lacrimal Inner eye socket ZygomaticUpper cheek ZygomaticUpper cheek Maxillae Upper jaw – 2 bones Mandible Lower jaw Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

    23. Neck bones Cervical Vertebrae7 bones manipulated in extended scalp massage Hyoid Supports the muscles of the tongue Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

    24. Back, chest and shoulder bones ClavicleCollar bone ScapulaShoulder bone 12 Ribs SternumChest bone Thoracic Vertebrae Spine Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

    25. Arm, wrist and hand bones Radius • Humerus • Largest bone of • upper arm Metacarpals5 long, thin bones that form the palm of the hand Ulna Carpals8 small bones held together by ligaments to form wrist or carpus PhalangesEach finger has 3 phalanges; each thumb has 2 Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

    26. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM Myology: study of the structure, function, and diseases of the muscles Body is composed of more than 500 large and small muscles • Compose about 40% of the body’s weight • Produce movement when stimulated Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    27. Support of the skeleton • Production of body movements • Contouring of body • Involvement in functions of other body systems • FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    28. Voluntary or Striated – respond to commands regulated by will • Involuntary or Non-striated – respond automatically to control various body functions The salon professional is primarily concerned with the voluntary muscles of the head, face, neck, arms and hands • 2 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE Striated Non-striated Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    29. Muscle of the heart itself • Only muscle of its type in the human body • Functions involuntarily • Cardiac (heart) muscle Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    30. Anterior– in front of Posterior – behind or in back of Superioris – located above or is larger Inferioris – located below or is smaller Levator – lifts up Depressor – draws down or depresses Dilator – opens, enlarges or expands • Terms used to identify muscle location or function Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    31. 3 Parts of the muscle Belly Midsection of muscle, between 2 attached sections Origin Nonmoving fixed portion, attached to bones or to other fixed muscle Insertion Portion of muscle joined to movable attachments: bones, movable muscles or skin Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    32. Muscles produce movement through contraction (tightening) and expansion (relaxing) 7 ways to stimulate muscular tissue include: • Massage • Electric current (high-frequency and faradic current) • Light rays (infrared rays and ultraviolet rays) • Heat rays (heating lamps and heating caps) • Moist heat (steamers, warm steam towels) • Nerve impulses (through nervous system) • Chemicals (certain acids and salts) Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    33. Primary interest to the salon professional as scalp and neck massages and facials are performed • Muscles affected by massage are generally manipulated from the insertion attachment to the origin attachment • Scalp and face muscles Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    34. Epicranius (Occipitofrontalis): formed by 2 muscles joined by the aponeurosis tendon • scaLP MUSCLES FrontalisRaises eyebrows; draws thescalpforward Occipitalis Draws the scalp back Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    35. ear MUSCLES AuricularisSuperior Above the ear AuricularisAnterior In front of the ear AuricularisPosterior Behind the ear Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    36. Eye and nose MUSCLES Corrugator Draws eyebrowsin and down Orbicularis Oculi Closes the eyelid LevatorPalpebraeSuperioris Raises eyelid Procerus Draws brow down Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    37. Mouth muscles • Oris Orbicularis • Circles the mouth • Responsible for contracting, puckering and wrinkling the lips as in kissing or whistling • QuadratusLabiiSuperioris • Consists of 3 parts • Located above the upper lip • Raises nostrils and upper lip as in expressing distaste Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    38. Mouth muscles • Risorius • Located at cornerof mouth • Draws mouth up and out as in grinning • Caninus • Located above corners of mouth • Raises angle of mouth as in snarling • QuadratusLabiiInferioris • Located below lower lip • Pulls lower lip down or to the side as in expressing sarcasm • Mentalis • Located at tip of chin • Pushes lower lip up and/or wrinkles chin as in expressing doubt Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    39. Mouth muscles • Triangularis • Located below the corners of mouth • Draws corners of mouth down as in expressing depression • Zygomaticus • Located outside the corners of mouth • Draws mouth up and back as in laughing • Consists of zygomaticus major and minor • Buccinator • Located between jaws and cheek • Responsible for compressing cheek to release air outwardly as in blowing Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    40. Mastication muscles Temporalis Performs both opening and closing jaws as in chewing (mastication) Masseter Aids in closing the jaw asin chewing (mastication) Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    41. Neck and upper back muscles Sternocleido Mastoideus Causes the head to move from side to side and up and down as in nodding “yes” or “no” • Platysma • Depresses lower jaw and lip as in expressing sadness Trapezius and LatissimusDorsi Draw head back, rotate shoulder blades and control swinging of arm Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    42. Shoulder, chest, and arm muscles Deltoid Lifts or turns the arm • Pectoralis Major andPectoralis Minor • Assist in swingingthe arms SerratusAnterior Helps in lifting the arm and in breathing Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    43. Shoulder, chest, and arm muscles SupinatorTurns palm up TricepControls forward movement of forearm PronatorTurns palmdownward and inward BicepRaises forearm, bends elbowand turns palm down Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    44. Shoulder, chest, and arm muscles Extensor Straightens fingers and wrist Flexor Bends wrist and closes fingers Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    45. Hand muscles AbductorSeparates fingers Opponens Give the ability to grasp or make a fist AdductorDraws fingerstogether Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

    46. The circulatory system • Controls circulation of blood and lymph through the body • Stimulated or relaxed by massage • Divided into two subsystems: cardiovascular and lymph-vascular system Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system

    47. Cardiovascular or Blood-Vascular • Responsible for circulation of the blood • Includes heart, arteries, veins and capillaries • Combines with lymph system to maintain circulation • Lymph-Vascular • Circulates lymph through lymph glands, nodes and vessels • Reaches parts of body not reached by blood • Two interrelated systems Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system

    48. Heart: cone-shaped, muscular organ located in the chest, normally the size of a closed fist • Contracts and relaxes to move blood • Consists of 4 chambers: • Upper (right and left atrium) • Lower (right and left ventricle) • Beats 60-80 times per minute (normal heart) Pericardium: membrane that encases the heart • The cardiovascular system Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

    49. the heart Pericardium Left Atrium Right Atrium Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system