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Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY . 3.1 3.2. BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY BASIC BODY SYSTEMS. Explain the relationship and function of cells, tissues and primary organs within the human body

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chapter 3 anatomy and physiology
Chapter 3ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

3.1

3.2

BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY

BASIC BODY SYSTEMS

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | advance organizer

slide3
Explain the relationship and function of cells, tissues and primary organs within the human body
  • Identify the structure, function and primary cosmetological significance, where appropriate, of 8 body systems

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | advance organizer

slide4
3.1

BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY

CELLS

TISSUES

ORGANS

BODY SYSTEMS

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | advance organizer

slide5
Anatomy: study of organs and systems of the body

2 TYPES OF ANATOMY

Microscopic

Studies structures too small to see without aid of a microscope

Gross

Can be seen with the naked eye

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | advance organizer

slide6
Physiology: study of the functions the organs and systems perform
  • physiology

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | Building blocks of the human body | CElls

slide7
Cells: basic units of living matter (life)

Protoplasm: gel-like substance containing water, salt and nutrients obtained from food

THREE BASIC PARTS OF A CELLS

  • Nucleus
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell Membrane

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | Building blocks of the human body | CElls

slide8
Metabolism: chemical process in which cells receive nutrients for growth and reproduction

2 PHASES OF METABOLISM

  • Anabolism: building up larger molecules from smaller ones
  • Catabolism: practices that preserve the health of the community

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | Building blocks of the human body | CElls

tissues
tissues

Tissues: groups of cells of the same kind

5 PRIMARY TYPES OF TISSUE

  • Epithelial
  • Connective
  • Nerve
  • Muscular
  • Liquid

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | building blocks of the human body | tissues

organs
organs

Organs: separate body structures that perform specific functions and are composed of 2 or more different tissues

Brain

Eyes

Heart

Lungs

Stomach and Intestines

Liver

Kidneys

Skin

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | building blocks of the human body | organs

body systems
Body systems

Systems: group of body structures and/or organs that together, perform functions for the body

Circulatory

Skeletal

Muscular

Nervous

Digestive

Excretory

Respiratory

Endocrine

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | building blocks of the human body | body systems

body systems1
Body systems

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | building blocks of the human body | body systems

self check
SELF-CHECK

Answer the following questions:

  • T or F Muscles are the basic units of living matter.
  • T or F The epithelial tissue covers and protects body surfaces and internal organs.
  • The study of organs and systems of the body is called ________.
  • Another name for histology is ___________ ________.
  • The study of the functions of organs and systems of the body is called __________.

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | self-check

self check1
SELF-CHECK
  • The study of the human body as seen with the naked eye is called ______ __________.
  • Cells are composed of a gel-like substance called ___________.
  • Cells make up _______, which make up organs. Organs make up ________.
  • A group of body structures that, together, perform one or more vital functions of the body is known as a _______.

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | self-check

self check2
SELF-CHECK

Answer the following questions:

  • T or F Muscles are the basic units of living matter.
  • T or F The epithelial tissue covers and protects body surfaces and internal organs.
  • The study of organs and systems of the body is called ________.
  • Another name for histology is ___________ ________.
  • The study of the functions of organs and systems of the body is called __________.

anatomy

microscopic anatomy

physiology

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | self-check

self check3
SELF-CHECK
  • The study of the human body as seen with the naked eye is called ______ __________.
  • Cells are composed of a gel-like substance called ___________.
  • Cells make up _______, which make up organs. Organs make up ________.
  • A group of body structures that, together, perform one or more vital functions of the body is known as a _______.

gross anatomy

protoplasm

tissues

systems

system

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE HUMAN BODY | self-check

slide17
3.2

BASIC BODY SYSTEMS

The Skeletal System

The Muscular System

The Circulatory System

The Nervous System

The Digestive System

The Excretory System

The Respiratory System

The Endocrine System

The Reproductive System

The Integumentary System

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | advance organizer

the skeletal system
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • Physical foundation of the body
  • Composed of 206 bones of different shapes and sizes
  • Bones are attached to each other at movable or immovable joints
  • A joint is the point at which two or more bones are joined together

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | advance organizer

slide19
Osteology: study of bones
  • Flat bones (ribs and skull)
  • Long bones (arms and legs)
  • Irregular bones (wrist, ankle, spinal column)

Bones:

  • Composed of 2/3 mineral and 1/3 organic matter
  • Produce white and red blood cells
  • Store calcium
  • BONES

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

slide20
Movement

Attachment

Protection

Support

Shape

  • FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

slide21
The skull

Skeleton of the head

  • Encloses and protects brain and primary sensory organs
  • Divided into 2 groups of bones
    • Cranium composed of 8 bones
    • Facial skeleton composed of 14 bones

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

slide22
The cranium

Parietal2 bones

Frontal

Occipital

Temporal2 bones

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

slide23

Nasal Bridge of the nose

Facial skeleton

Lacrimal Inner eye socket

Lacrimal Inner eye socket

ZygomaticUpper cheek

ZygomaticUpper cheek

Maxillae Upper jaw – 2 bones

Mandible Lower jaw

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

slide24
Neck bones

Cervical Vertebrae7 bones manipulated in extended scalp massage

Hyoid

Supports the muscles of the tongue

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

slide25
Back, chest and shoulder bones

ClavicleCollar bone

ScapulaShoulder bone

12 Ribs

SternumChest bone

Thoracic Vertebrae

Spine

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

slide26
Arm, wrist and hand bones

Radius

  • Humerus
  • Largest bone of
  • upper arm

Metacarpals5 long, thin bones that form the palm of the hand

Ulna

Carpals8 small bones held together by ligaments to form wrist or carpus

PhalangesEach finger has 3 phalanges; each thumb has 2

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

the muscular system
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Myology: study of the structure, function, and diseases of the muscles

Body is composed of more than 500 large and small muscles

  • Compose about 40% of the body’s weight
  • Produce movement when stimulated

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide28
Support of the skeleton
  • Production of body movements
  • Contouring of body
  • Involvement in functions of other body systems
  • FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide29
Voluntary or Striated – respond to commands regulated by will
  • Involuntary or Non-striated – respond automatically to control various body functions

The salon professional is primarily concerned with the voluntary muscles of the head, face, neck, arms and hands

  • 2 TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE

Striated

Non-striated

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide30
Muscle of the heart itself
  • Only muscle of its type in the human body
  • Functions involuntarily
  • Cardiac (heart) muscle

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide31
Anterior– in front of

Posterior – behind or in back of

Superioris – located above or is larger

Inferioris – located below or is smaller

Levator – lifts up

Depressor – draws down or depresses

Dilator – opens, enlarges or expands

  • Terms used to identify muscle location or function

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide32
3 Parts of the muscle

Belly

Midsection of muscle, between 2 attached sections

Origin

Nonmoving fixed portion, attached to bones or to other fixed muscle

Insertion

Portion of muscle joined to movable attachments: bones, movable muscles or skin

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide33
Muscles produce movement through contraction (tightening) and expansion (relaxing)

7 ways to stimulate muscular tissue include:

  • Massage
  • Electric current (high-frequency and faradic current)
  • Light rays (infrared rays and ultraviolet rays)
  • Heat rays (heating lamps and heating caps)
  • Moist heat (steamers, warm steam towels)
  • Nerve impulses (through nervous system)
  • Chemicals (certain acids and salts)

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide34
Primary interest to the salon professional as scalp and neck massages and facials are performed
  • Muscles affected by massage are generally manipulated from the insertion attachment to the origin attachment
  • Scalp and face muscles

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide35
Epicranius (Occipitofrontalis): formed by 2 muscles joined by the aponeurosis tendon
  • scaLP MUSCLES

FrontalisRaises eyebrows; draws thescalpforward

Occipitalis

Draws the scalp back

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide36
ear MUSCLES

AuricularisSuperior

Above the ear

AuricularisAnterior

In front of the ear

AuricularisPosterior

Behind the ear

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide37
Eye and nose MUSCLES

Corrugator

Draws eyebrowsin and down

Orbicularis Oculi

Closes the eyelid

LevatorPalpebraeSuperioris

Raises eyelid

Procerus

Draws brow down

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide38
Mouth muscles
  • Oris Orbicularis
  • Circles the mouth
  • Responsible for contracting, puckering and wrinkling the lips as in kissing or whistling
  • QuadratusLabiiSuperioris
  • Consists of 3 parts
  • Located above the upper lip
  • Raises nostrils and upper lip as in expressing distaste

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide39
Mouth muscles
  • Risorius
  • Located at cornerof mouth
  • Draws mouth up and out as in grinning
  • Caninus
  • Located above corners of mouth
  • Raises angle of mouth as in snarling
  • QuadratusLabiiInferioris
  • Located below lower lip
  • Pulls lower lip down or to the side as in expressing sarcasm
  • Mentalis
  • Located at tip of chin
  • Pushes lower lip up and/or wrinkles chin as in expressing doubt

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide40
Mouth muscles
  • Triangularis
  • Located below the corners of mouth
  • Draws corners of mouth down as in expressing depression
  • Zygomaticus
  • Located outside the corners of mouth
  • Draws mouth up and back as in laughing
  • Consists of zygomaticus major and minor
  • Buccinator
  • Located between jaws and cheek
  • Responsible for compressing cheek to release air outwardly as in blowing

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide41
Mastication muscles

Temporalis

Performs both opening and closing jaws as in chewing (mastication)

Masseter

Aids in closing the jaw asin chewing (mastication)

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide42
Neck and upper back muscles

Sternocleido

Mastoideus

Causes the head to move from side to side and up and down as in nodding “yes” or “no”

  • Platysma
  • Depresses lower jaw and lip as in expressing sadness

Trapezius and

LatissimusDorsi

Draw head back, rotate shoulder blades and control swinging of arm

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide43
Shoulder, chest, and arm muscles

Deltoid

Lifts or turns the arm

  • Pectoralis Major andPectoralis Minor
  • Assist in swingingthe arms

SerratusAnterior

Helps in lifting the arm and in breathing

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide44
Shoulder, chest, and arm muscles

SupinatorTurns palm up

TricepControls forward

movement of forearm

PronatorTurns palmdownward

and inward

BicepRaises forearm, bends elbowand turns palm down

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide45
Shoulder, chest, and arm muscles

Extensor

Straightens fingers

and wrist

Flexor

Bends wrist and

closes fingers

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

slide46
Hand muscles

AbductorSeparates fingers

Opponens

Give the ability to grasp or make a fist

AdductorDraws fingerstogether

Chapter 3 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY | BASIC BODY SYSTEMS | THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

the circulatory system
The circulatory system
  • Controls circulation of blood and lymph through the body
  • Stimulated or relaxed by massage
  • Divided into two subsystems: cardiovascular and lymph-vascular system

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system

slide48
Cardiovascular or Blood-Vascular
    • Responsible for circulation of the blood
    • Includes heart, arteries, veins and capillaries
    • Combines with lymph system to maintain circulation
  • Lymph-Vascular
    • Circulates lymph through lymph glands, nodes and vessels
    • Reaches parts of body not reached by blood
  • Two interrelated systems

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system

slide49
Heart: cone-shaped, muscular organ located in the chest, normally the size of a closed fist
  • Contracts and relaxes to move blood
  • Consists of 4 chambers:
    • Upper (right and left atrium)
    • Lower (right and left ventricle)
  • Beats 60-80 times per minute (normal heart)

Pericardium: membrane that encases the heart

  • The cardiovascular system

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide50
the heart

Pericardium

Left Atrium

Right Atrium

Left Ventricle

Right Ventricle

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide51
Circulates through the body as a sticky, salty fluid
  • Brings nourishment and oxygen to body parts
  • Carries toxins and waste products to liver and kidneys to be eliminated
  • Made up of red and white corpuscles, plateletsand plasma

The average adult blood supplyis 8 to 10 pints

  • The Blood

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide52
Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes or red corpuscles)
  • Carry oxygen and contain hemoglobin

Oxygen-poor blood is deep scarlet redOxygen-rich blood is bright red

White Blood Cells (leukocytes or white corpuscles)

  • Fight bacteria and other foreign substances
  • The blood

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide53
Blood Platelets (thrombocytes)
  • Responsible for the clotting of blood

Plasma

  • Fluid part of blood
  • Carries RBC, WBC and blood platelets through the body
  • About 90% water
  • The blood

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide54
Blood Vessels

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide55
Systemic or General Circulation: the entire process of blood traveling from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart

To the heart

  • Oxygenated blood enters right auricle (atrium) of heart through superior vena cava
  • Blood is then pumped through tricuspid valve into right ventricle
  • Blood flow through the heart

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide56
Common Carotid Artery
  • Internal Carotid Artery
  • External Carotid Artery
  • Internal Jugular Vein
  • External Jugular Vein
  • Occipital Artery
  • Posterior Auricular Artery
  • Superficial Temporal Artery
  • External Maxillary Artery
  • Arteries and Veins of the Face, Head and Neck

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide57
Common Carotid Arteries
  • Supply head, face and neck
  • Located on either side of the neck
  • Split into internal andexternal carotid arteries
  • Arteries and Veins of the Face, Head and Neck

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide58
Internal Carotid Artery – supplies blood to brain, eyes and forehead
  • External Carotid Artery – branches into smaller arteries, supplying blood to skin and muscles of the head

All blood from the head, face and neck returns through two veins, internal and external jugular veins

  • Arteries and Veins of the Face, Head and Neck

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide59
External Carotid Artery – branches into smaller arteries
    • Occipital – supplies blood to back of the head, up to crown
    • Posterior Auricular – supplies blood to scalp above and behind ears
    • Superficial Temporal – supplies blood to sides and top of the head
    • External Maxillary – supplies blood to lower portion of the face, including mouth and nose
  • Arteries and Veins of the Face, Head and Neck

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | The cardiovascular system

slide60
Lymph
  • Colorless liquid by product
  • Nourishes parts of the body not reached by blood
  • Travels through nodes or glands that filter out toxic substances

The lymphatic system picks up leaked fluid and plasma proteins and returns them to the cardiovascular system

  • Lymph-Vascular System (Lymphatic System)

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | the circulatory system | Lymph-Vascular system

the nervous system
The nervous system

Neurology: study of the nervous system

  • Coordinates and controls operation of the body
  • Divided into 3 subsystems
    • Central or Cerebrospinal
    • Peripheral
    • Autonomic or Sympathetic
  • Primary Components
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
    • Nerves

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system

slide62
Central Nervous System
  • Composed of brain, spinal cord and spinal and cranial nerves
  • Responsible for all voluntary body actions

Brain

  • Controls all 3 parts of nervous system
  • Is command center
  • Weighs 44-48 ounces
  • The central nervous system

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | The central nervous system

slide63
THE BRAIN
  • The central nervous system

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | The central nervous system

slide64
The spinal cord
  • Composed of long nerve fibers
  • Originates in base of brain and extends to base of spine
  • Holds 31 pairs of spinal nerves
  • The central nervous system

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | The central nervous system

slide65
Peripheral Nervous System: composed of sensory and motor nerves extending from brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body
  • Have nucleus, cytoplasm and membrane
  • Differ in appearance due to threadlike fibers called axons that extend from cells
  • Contain nerve terminals (synapse)
    • Located at the end of axons
    • Send messages as impulses

Dendrites: short fibers that receive messages

sent to a nerve cell

  • The Peripheral Nervous System

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | The Peripheral nervous system

slide66
Sensory(afferent)
  • Carry messages to brain and spinal cord
  • Determine sense of smell, sight, touch, hearing, taste

Motor(efferent)

  • Carry messages from brain to muscles
  • Receive messages from the brain and cause muscles to contract or expand

Mixed

  • Perform both sensory and motor functions
  • Types of Nerves

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | The Peripheral nervous system

slide67
Trifacial Nerve (Fifth Cranial): largest of the cranial nerves (mixed nerve)
  • Transmits facial sensations to the brain
  • Controls muscle movements of chewing
  • Divides into three main branches
  • Face, Head and Neck Nerves

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | Face, Head and Neck Nerves

slide68
THE TRIFACIAL NERVE
  • Face, Head and Neck Nerves

Ophthalmic

Maxillary

Mandibular

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | Face, Head and Neck Nerves

slide69
THE TRIFACIAL NERVE
  • Face, Head and Neck Nerves

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | Face, Head and Neck Nerves

slide70
The facial Nerve

Facial Nerve (Seventh Cranial): primary motor nerve of the face

  • Emerges from brain at the lower part of ear
  • Has 6 branches of particular importance
    • Posterior Auricular - extends to muscles behind and below ear
    • Temporal - extends to muscles of temple, side of forehead, eyebrow, eyelid and upper cheek
    • Zygomatic - extends to upper muscles of cheek
    • Buccal - extends to muscles of mouth
    • Marginal Mandibular - extends to muscles of chin and lower lip
    • Cervical - extends to muscles on side of neck

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | Face, Head and Neck Nerves

slide71
Other cervical nerves include
    • Greater Occipital – extends up the back of scalp to top of head
    • Lesser Occipital – nerve extends into the muscles at back of skull
    • Greater Auricular – extends into the side of neck and external ear
    • Cervical – extends into the side and front of neck to breastbone
  • The facial Nerve

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | Face, Head and Neck Nerves

slide72
4 primary nerves are mixed nerves
  • Arm and hand nerves

Median

extends down mid-forearm into hand

Radial

extends down thumb side of the arm into back of hand

Ulnar

extends down little finger side of arm into palm of hand

Digital

extends into fingers of hand

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | Arm and hand Nerves

slide73
Nerves of the face, head and neck may be stimulated during facials and/or scalp massage to:
  • Stimulate sensitive nerve tissues
  • Relax tight muscles
  • Soothe fatigued muscles
  • Nerves and massage

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | Nerves and massage

slide74
Responsible for all involuntary body functions
  • Operates the respiratory, digestive, circulatory, excretory, endocrine and reproductive systems
  • The Autonomic (Sympathetic) Nervous System

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | The nervous system | The Autonomic Nervous System

the digestive system
The digestive system

Breaks food down into simpler chemical compounds easily absorbed by cells or eliminated from the body in waste products

  • Enzymes from salivary glands start breaking down food
  • Food travels down pharynx and through esophagus
  • Food is propelled into stomach by twisting and turning of esophagus (peristalsis)

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems |

The digestive system

slide76
Food is broken down by hydrochloric acid and enzymes
  • Partially digested food passes from stomach into small intestine
  • Nutrients are absorbed by villi
  • Undigested food passes into large intestine

The entire digestive process takes about 9 hours

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems |

The digestive system

the excretory system
The excretory system

Eliminates solid, liquid and gaseous waste productsfrom the body

Organs of excretory system include:

Skin Liver Kidneys

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems |

The excretory system

the respiratory system
The respiratory system

Primary Functions

  • Intake of oxygen
  • Exhalation of carbon dioxide

Breathing through the nose is a healthier option than breathing through the mouth.

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems |

The respiratory system

slide79
Primary Organs
  • Lungs Process oxygen for absorption into the blood and release carbon dioxide
  • Diaphragm
  • Expands and contracts automatically, forcing air into and out of the lungs

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems |

The respiratory system

the endocrine system
The endocrine system
  • Regulates and controls growth, reproduction and health of the body; composed of ductless glands
  • Manufactures hormones
  • Affects hair growth, skin conditions, energy levels
    • Signs of fatigue or changes in hair growth may signal need for medical attention

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems |

The endocrine system

the reproductive system
The reproductive system

Responsible for process by which a living organism procreates others of its kind

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems |

The REPRODUCTIVE system

the integumentary system
The integumentary system
  • Composed of the skin and its layers
  • Two primary glands
    • Sebaceous (Oil) Glands
    • Sudoriferous (Sweat) Glands

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems |

The integumentary system

self check4
self-check
  • Name two of the six cranial bones affected by a scalp massage.________________________________________________
  • On a sheet of paper numbered from 1-8, answer the following questions.

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check5
self-check
  • Name three of the nine mouth muscles:________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check6
self-check
  • Which blood cells fight bacteria and other foreign substances and increase in number when infection invades the body?

a. Plasma

b. Leukocytes

c. Thrombocytes

d. Red Blood Cells

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check7
self-check
  • Name two of the four primary nerves found in the arm and hand.________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check8
self-check
  • Where does food travel after it leaves the esophagus during the digestive process?

a. Pharynx

b. Stomach

c. Small Intestine

d. Salivary Glands

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check9
self-check
  • Name two of the three organs of the excretory system.________________________________________________

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check10
Self-check
  • Name the two primary respiratory system organs.________________________________________________

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check11
self-check
  • Name three things that the endocrine system directly affects.________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check12
self-check
  • Name two of the six cranial bones affected by a scalp massage.________________________________________________
  • On a sheet of paper numbered from 1-8, answer the following questions.

Parietal

Frontal

Occipital

Temporal

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check13
self-check
  • Name three of the nine mouth muscles:________________________________________________________________________

Oris Orbicularis

QuadratusLabiiSuperioris

QuadratusLabiiInferioris

Mentalis

Risorius

Caninus

Triangularis

Zygomaticus

Buccinator

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check14
self-check
  • Which blood cells fight bacteria and other foreign substances and increase in number when infection invades the body?

a. Plasma

b. Leukocytes

c. Thrombocytes

d. Red Blood Cells

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check15
self-check
  • Name two of the four primary nerves found in the arm and hand.________________________________________________________________________

Radial

Median

Ulnar

Digital

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check16
self-check
  • Where does food travel after it leaves the esophagus during the digestive process?

a. Pharynx

b. Stomach

c. Small Intestine

d. Salivary Glands

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check17
self-check
  • Name two of the three organs of the excretory system.________________________________________________

Skin

Liver

Kidneys

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check18
Self-check
  • Name the two primary respiratory system organs.________________________________________________

Lungs

Diaphragm

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

self check19
self-check
  • Name three things that the endocrine system directly affects.________________________________________________________________________

Hair Growth

Skin Conditions

Energy Levels

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | self-check

face the facts
Face the facts

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

  • Composed of 206 bones, the skeletal system is the physical foundation of the body
  • The skeletal system supports the body, protects internal organs, provides a frame for muscles, and allows for body movement

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | Face the facts

face the facts1
Face the facts

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • There are more than 500 large and small muscles in the body, composing approximately 40% of the body’s weight
  • The muscular system supports the skeleton, produces body movements, contours the body and helps other body systems function

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | Face the facts

face the facts2
Face the facts

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

  • Primary components of the nervous system include the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
  • The study of the nervous system is called neurology

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | Face the facts

face the facts3
Face the facts

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

  • The digestive system breaks food down into simpler chemical compounds that can be easily absorbed by cells or eliminated from the body in waste products

THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM

  • The excretory system eliminates solid, liquid and gaseous waste products from the body

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | Face the facts

face the facts4
Face the facts

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

  • The respiratory system is responsible for the intake of oxygen to be absorbed into the blood and the exhalation of carbon dioxide

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  • The endocrine system is composed of a group of specialized ductless glands that regulate and control the growth, reproduction and health of the body

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | basic body systems | Face the facts

lessons learned
Lessons learned
  • The building blocks of the human body include cells that make up tissues, tissues that make up organs and organs that make up systems
  • The skeletal system supports the body, surrounds and protects internal organs, provides a frame to which muscles can attach and allows body movement
  • The muscular system supports the skeleton, produces body movements, contours the body and aids in the functions of other body systems

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | Lessons learned

lessons learned1
Lessons learned
  • The circulatory system controls the circulation of blood and lymph through the body
  • The nervous system coordinates and controls the overall operation of the human body by receiving and interpreting stimuli and sending messages away from the nerve cells to the appropriate tissues, muscles and organs

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | Lessons learned

self test
Self-test

Chapter 3 anatomy and physiology | self-TEST