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Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Section 1

Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Section 1

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Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 Section 1

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  1. Anatomy & PhysiologyChapter 1 Section 1 Levels of Structural Organization

  2. Essential Question:What are the functions of the organ systems of the human body?

  3. DEFINITIONS ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY • THE SCIENCE OF BODY STRUCTURES & THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THEM • THE SCIENCE OF BODY FUNCTIONS

  4. HISTOLOGY EMBRYOLOGY • MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE of TISSUES • STUDY OF EMBRYOS: FROM THE FERTILIZED EGG  8TH WEEK of DEVELOPMENT

  5. LEVELS of STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION

  6. CHEMICAL • CELLULAR • TISSUES • ORGAN • ORGAN SYSTEM • ORGANISM LEVELSofSTRUCTURALORGANIZATION

  7. Organ Systems of the Human Body:1. Integumentary System components functions Skin Nails Hair Sweat Glands Oil Glands Protection Regulates temperature Eliminates waste Vit. D synthesis Contains sensory receptors

  8. Integumentary System

  9. 2. Skeletal System components functions • Bones • Joints • Cartilage • Supports & protects body • Surface for muscles to attach • Movement • Vit. D synthesis • Stores minerals & lipids • Houses cells that produce blood cells

  10. Skeletal System

  11. 3. Muscular System components functions • Muscles: • Cardiac • Smooth • Skeletal • Produces Movement • Generates Heat

  12. Muscular System

  13. Nervous System components function • Brain • Spinal cord • Nerves • Special senses • Vision • Hearing • Touch • Smell • Taste • Generate Action Potentials • Regulates body activities • Maintains homeostasis • Controls muscle & gland contractions • Interprets stimuli

  14. Nervous System

  15. Endocrine System components functions • Glands (& cells) that produce Hormones • Hypothalamus • Pituitary • Thyroid • Pancreas • Adrenal • Ovary • Testis • Thymus • Parathyroid • Pineal • Homeostasis • Metabolism • Growth & development • Reproduction • Glucose, calcium, phosphorous, iodine levels controlled

  16. Endocrine System

  17. Lymphatic (Immune) System components functions • Lymphatic Vessels & Fluid • Spleen • Thymus • Lymph Nodes • Tonsils • Returns proteins & fluid to blood • Transports lipids • Fights infections • Recognizes “self”

  18. Lymphatic (Immune) System

  19. Cardiovascular System components functions • Blood • Heart • Blood Vessels: • Arteries • Arterioles • Capillaries • Venules • Veins • Transports O2 &nutrients to cells • Carries CO2 & wastes away from cells • Transports immune system factors • Regulates: • pH • Temperature • Water balance

  20. Cardiovascular System

  21. Respiratory System components functions • Lungs • Nose / Throat • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchial Tubes • Transfers O2 from air to blood & CO2 from blood to exhaled air • Regulates pH • Produces sound

  22. Respiratory System

  23. Digestive System components functions • Mouth/Teeth • Tongue • Pharynx • Esophagus • Stomach • Small Intestine • Large Intestine • Anus • Salivary Glands • Liver / Gallbladder • Pancreas • Physical & chemical digestion of food • Absorption of Nutrients • Elimination of solid wastes

  24. Digestive System

  25. Excretory (Urinary) System components functions • Kidneys • Ureters • Urinary Bladder • Urethra • Produces, Stores, & Eliminates Urine • Regulates vol. & chemical composition of blood • Helps maintain normal pH • Helps regulate production of RBCs

  26. Excretory (Urinary) System

  27. Reproductive System components functions • Male • Testes • Epididymis • Ductus Deferens • Penis • Female • Ovaries • Fallopian Tubes • Uterus/ Cervix • Vagina • Vulva • Production of Gametes  offspring • Hormone production that regulates reproduction & other body processes

  28. Reproductive System

  29. NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES • INSPECTION • PALPATION • AUSCULTATION • PERCUSSION

  30. Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques AUSCULTATION PERCUSSION • LISTENING TO BODY SOUNDS TO EVALUATE FUNCTIONING OF CERTAIN ORGANS • TAPPING BODY SURFACES WITH FINGER TIPS & LISTENING TO RESULTING ECHO

  31. WORK WITH A PARTNER AND DECIDE WHAT ARE THE BASIC LIFE PROCESSES OF LIVING HUMAN BEINGS. YOU HAVE 3 MINUTES

  32. METABOLISM • RESPONSIVENESS • MOVEMENT • GROWTH • DIFFERENTIATION • REPRODUCTION THERE ARE 6 BASIC LIFE PROCESSES THAT ARE CHARACTERISTIC OF LIVING HUMANS

  33. METABOLISM • the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in the body • Catabolism • Breaking down complex substances  simpler parts • Anabolism • Building up of complex substances from simpler ones

  34. RESPONSIVENESS • THE BODY’S ABILITY TO DETECT & RESPOND TO CHANGE • DIFFERENT CELLS OF THE BODY RESPOND IN CHARACTERISTIC WAYS: • Neurons send action potentials • Muscle fibers contract or relax

  35. MOVEMENT • INCLUDES MOTION OF: • WHOLE BODY • INDIVIDUAL ORGANS • CELLS • ORGANELLES

  36. GROWTH • an increase in body size due either to: • Increase in # of cells • Increase in size of cells • Both

  37. DIFFERENTIATION • IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CELL FROM UNSPECIALIZED  SPECIALIZED

  38. REPRODUCTION • REFERS TO EITHER • NEW CELLS MADE FOR TISSUE GROWTH, REPAIR, OR REPLACEMENT 2. PRODUCTION of a NEW INDIVIDUAL

  39. Anatomy & PhysiologyChapter 1 Section 2 HOMEOSTASIS

  40. Essential Question How do negative & positive feedback systems help the body maintain homeostasis?

  41. HOMEOSTASIS • CONDITION OF EQUILIBRIUM (BALANCE) IN THE BODY’S INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT DUE TO CEASELESS INTERPLAY OF THE BODY’S MANY REGULATORY PROCESSES

  42. BODY FLUIDS An important part of maintaining homeostasis is keeping the volume & composition of body fluids within normal limits (wnl) • Body Fluids Divided into 2 compartments: • ICF • Intracellular fluid (inside cell) • ECF • Extracellular Fluid (outside cell)

  43. ICF • In the cytoplasm • Contains dissolved chemicals • Enzymes • Ions (Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, H+) • Glucose, Pyruvate

  44. ECF • Found as • Interstitial fluid (around cells) • Plasma smaller amounts: • Lymph • Cerebral Spinal Fluid • Synovial Fluid • Aqueous Humor • Vitreous Body

  45. Control of Homeostasis • There are constant disruptions to homeostasis from external sources & from internal sources. External Internal Temperature Blood Glucose O2 after race Strong Emotions

  46. Most commonly the nervous system and/or the endocrine system are in charge of maintaining homeostasis in the body Nervous System Endocrine System • Quick responder • Usually involves sending action potentials to organs to counteract the deviation from balanced conditions • Slower responder • Usually involves secreting hormones (messenger molecules) into blood which delivers them to responding organ

  47. Feedback Loops • Is a cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, re-monitored, reevaluated, and so on.

  48. Feedback Systems • Receptor • a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition & send input to a control center • Control Center • Typically is the brain which sets range of values w/in which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates input from receptors, & generates output commands when necessary • Effector • body structure that receives input from control center & produces response that acts on controlled condition