World War I “The Great War” 1914-1918
What led to World War One? A series of contributing factors…
The Pursuit of Peace • Wanted to avoid conflict, foster understanding among nations • Pacifism = opposition to all war • 1896 = First Modern Olympic Games • Alfred Nobel sets up the Nobel Peace Prize • Suffragettes supported peace • First Universal Peace Conference, Netherlands • Hague Tribunal, first world court to handle disputes between countries, no enforcement power
Causes • Militarism- glorification of the military • Alliances- formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another’s defense • Nationalism- Pride and love of one’s country France, Germany, Russia, and the Balkans • Imperialism-Imperial rivals divided European nations. • Anarchy-Abolishing all government
Militarism and the Arms Race • Grew partly out of Social Darwinsim. • Expansion of armies and navies = arms race • Tensions between Germany and Britain increase leading to increase naval spending • On matters of war and peace, governments turned to military leaders for advice
Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures [Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy, France, Britain, Russia] in millions of £s.
Soldiers Available on Mobilization (in millions)
A Tangle of Alliances • Distrust led great powers to sign treaties, intended to create powerful combinations that no one would attack • Bismark forms the Triple Alliance – Germany, Italy, and Austria Hungary • France an d Russia form and alliance. France and Britain sign an entente. • Germany will sign with Ottoman Empire • Britain will draw close to Japan
Nationalist feeling were strong in France and Germany Germany • Proud of their empires new military power and industrial leadership France • Longed to regain its position as Europe’s leading power • French were bitter about their 1871 defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the German occupation of the border provinces of Alsace and Lorraine • Yearned for revenge against Germany and recovery of lost territory
Eastern Europe • Russia sponsored a powerful form of nationalism called Pan-Slavism • As the largest Slavic nations, Russia felt it had a duty to lead and defend all Slavs • Austria-Hungary worried that nationalism might foster rebellion among many minorities within its empire • Ottoman Turkey felt threatened by new nations on its borders • In 1912, several Balkan states attack Turkey. The next year, the new Balkan states fought among themselves over the spoils of war.
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The“Powder Keg”of Europe
Imperialism • 1905 and 1911, competition for colonies brought France and Germany to the brink of war • Britain felt threatened by Germany's rapid economic growth • German’s wanted more respect (boo hoo)
Easy way to remember the four contributing factors: MANIA M: Militarism A: Alliance System N: Nationalism I: Imperialism A: Anarchism
Trigger Incident Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Assassination in Sarajevo • Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand angered Serbian nationalist when he decides to visit Sarajevo • “Our decision was taken almost immediately. Death to the tyrant!” – Black Hand conspiritor
Princip swallowed poison, which only made him sick. When he tried to turn the gun on himself, a crowed intervened. After rescuing Princip from the mob, the police inflicted their own torture on the assassin: they kicked him, beat him, and scraped the skin from his neck with the edges of their swords. Three months later, a court found Princip guilty of treason and murder, but because he committed his crime before his twentieth birthday, he could not be executed. Sentenced to twenty years in prison, Princip died in April 1918 from tuberculosis.
Brief Side Note: More Modern History • In 1991, rivalries among Eastern Orthodox Serbs, Muslim Bosnians, and Catholic Croats led to civil war in Bosnia. More than 250,000 people died, and millions fled their homes. In 1995, American and European troops helped restore peace. Tensions flared again when Serbia moved to suppress an independence movement by Muslim Albanians in the province of Kosovo. In 1999, the United States and its allies took military action against the Serbian government.”
“Don’t bite off more than you can chew!” • Austria gives Serbia an ultimatum. • Serbia agrees to most of demands, requests negotiations on some points • Austria did not want to negotiate. • Austria declares war on Serbia. 7/28/1914 • Russia takes action on the behalf of Serbia. • European countries urge them to back off.
Austria declares war on Serbia Germany declares war on Russia. Germany immediately declares war on France. Russia mobilizes Russia wants France’s assistance France had not acted one way or the other. Chain Reaction Notice how the events criss-cross back and forth.
(1.) Belgium (neutral) (2.) Germany invaded Belgium (3.) Great Britain outraged (4.) G. B. Declares war on 8/4/1914. Chain Reactions Continue: Alliances Upheld
Who is the instigator behind Austria? (Hum the theme from jeopardy.)
The Kaiser (seated) and cousin Czar Nicholas II (foreground standing) in younger days at a party hosted by Queen Victoria at Baden-Baden in Germany
The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
War-Time Alliances: Central Powers “The Heart of Europe” (Geographically)
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers: Nicholas II [Russia] Wilhelm II [Germany] George V [Great Britain] Victor Emmanuel II [Italy ] Enver Pasha[Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
Why was Italy on the “bad” side? • France vs. Italy • French kidnapped the Pope from Italy, taken to Avignon, France • Pope dies in French custody (frail man) • French elect their own pope in Avignon • Act infuriates the Italian Catholics • Italy never forgives France
What Do You Think? • Do you think the war could have been avoided? • Who caused the war? • Do you think the idea of going to war excites people today the same way that it 100 years ago?
The Schlieffen Plan • General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen • Designer of Germany’s military plan • Avoid a two-front war • Attack and defeat France quickly, then Russia • Russia lacked RR (slow mobilization) • Speed = key to success of the plan • Attacked France through Belgium • Wanted quick access to France • Belgium refused (neutrality)
Differing Viewpoints • “Family feud” • “Fall of the eagles” • “The war to end all wars” • “The war to make the world safe for democracy”
Table Activity: War Declaration Reason for Declaration Draw a table. Write the immediate reason why each nation declared war on the other. Germany on Russia Germany on France Britain on Germany
Mobilization • Home by Christmas! • No major war in 50 years! • Nationalism! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!