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The Roaring Twenties. The Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance. Prediction. The Harlem Renaissance refers to…. The Great Migration. Hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved from the rural South into northern industrial cities during and after WWI Push Factors Poverty Debt

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The Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance


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    1. The Roaring Twenties The Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance

    2. Prediction The Harlem Renaissance refers to…

    3. The Great Migration • Hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved from the rural South into northern industrial cities during and after WWI • Push Factors • Poverty • Debt • Racism • Violence • Pull Factors • Factory jobs • More freedom and independence

    4. New Attitudes • White attitudes toward African Americans did not really change after WWI • African American soldiers had hoped that their service would enhance their social status • Factory workers hoped that their prosperity would continue • When these hopes were ruined, many African Americans became bitter and even more determined to fight for their rights

    5. Chicago Race Riots • In 1919, an African American teenager swimming in Lake Michigan drifted toward a white beach • An angry crowd on shore threw rocks at him and knocked him unconscious • The teenager drowned • Angry African Americans formed crowds to march into white neighborhoods to retaliate • White crowds grew even larger and wreaked havoc in black neighborhoods • Casualties: • 38 dead (15 white, 23 black) • 537 injured • 1,000+ homeless • The summer of 1919 became known as the “Red Summer” as 120 people died in race riots throughout the country

    6. Marcus Garvey’s Black Nationalism • Garvey encouraged African Americans to take pride in their own achievements and to develop an awareness of their African heritage • Most of his following was among poor urban blacks, and his movement grew explosively in the 1920s • He rejected assimilation into white society • The United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) established black-owned grocery stores and encouraged African Americans to only patronize black-owned businesses • Garvey also urged his supporters to leave America for Africa to establish a new society of their own • Garvey’s followers declined sharply after 1923, when he was charged with business fraud and deported to Jamaica • However, the black nationalism movement would survive long after Garvey

    7. Harlem Renaissance • By the end of WWI, Harlem had become one of the nation’s largest and most influential African American communities • Culture flourished in Harlem as a new generation of artists and intellectuals grew to prominence • Langston Hughes • Louis Armstrong • Zora Neale Hurston • Many others • Jazz became a staple of American popular culture due to its exposure in Harlem

    8. African-American Pride • The literature, poetry, and art of the Harlem Renaissance drew heavily from African roots • Artists worked to display the richness of their heritage • They also strove to prove to whites that their race was worthy of respect • The Harlem Renaissance not only advanced African American art and culture, but it also exposed this art and culture to a much wider audience • While the Harlem Renaissance may not have had much impact on the lives of ordinary black men and women of the 1920s, it had a lasting effect on American art and culture, and would have a great impact on the Civil Rights movement