The Harlem Renaissance “The Negro Movement”
Where & When …? -The Harlem Renaissance took place in New York city during the 1920s and early 1930s. -The Renaissance is known as “The Negro Movement” because it was after the Great Migration of African Americans moving north after WWI.
Why …? -The reason for this movement was to show the pride of the “New Negro”. -It also attempted to prove the old stereotypes against blacks wrong.. -This showed their improved intelligence in all aspects of society such as their production of literature, art, music.
Who …? -There were many leaders during this era, for Art there was Jacob Lawrence who included the Great Migration in most of his paintings. -Music was lead by Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong who composed mostly Jazz along with Bessie Smith who was a blue singer. -The Literature times were lead by Langston Hughes that combined the experiences of Africans and Americans to create beautiful poetry.
Works Cited http://www.biography.com/tv/classroom/harlem-renaissance http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmharlem1.html
The Great Migration Reid Decker Nathan Goodman
The Military Hellfighters, first black soldiers to see combat in WWI Hellfighters, fought alongside French in WWI http://www.fofweb.com/NuHistory/default.asp?ItemID=WE52 Tuskegee, first black aviators to serve during WWII Tuskegee program began in 1941 at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama http://www.fofweb.com/NuHistory/default.asp?ItemID=WE52 Buffalo Soldiers, all black army regiment, created in 1861 Regiment revived during WWI with two black army divisions http://www.discoverseaz.com/History/BufSold.html
Harlem Renaissance Black American moved to populated areas Residential segregation 1948 this was struck down Confined Blacks created cities in cities Largest was in Harlem 200,00 lived http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=443
Post WWI Changes Black culture creates Jazz, a new form of music Jazz centers become New Orleans and Harlem, large black populationhttp://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/A-New-Society-Economic-Social-Change.topicArticleId-25238,articleId-25203.html The NAACP grew in influence, worked for civil equality The UNIA was created in 1914 and strived for the same goal http://www.vintageperiods.com/harlem.php African American’s accepted into white culture more than before The creation of the wealthy African American class http://www.vintageperiods.com/harlem.php
What and Where is Harlem? By:BrittanyPrager and KyleyKlem Also known as the New Negro Movement Literary, artistic, cultural, and intellectual movement Started in Harlem, New York after World War I Affected many African Americans’ lives Promotion of civil rights through literature and art Its influence spread throughout the nation http://www.jcu.edu/harlem/index.htm
Why was Harlem built? Originally settled by the Dutch for farmland Many other discriminated races soon headed North As population grew, residential and commercial expansion helped create Harlem Many tenement apartments were built and later filled with black immigrants Harlem became a haven for black Americans Provided a place where they were no longer discriminated against http://www.harlemheritage.com/history-of-harlem/
How it became the mecca for the African American artist? The North offered a relief from the previous repressive attitudes from the South Harlem became an outlet for African Americans to express their freedom Instilled a sense of racial pride for the artists Promoted African American achievements through art and music By the artists spontaneous expressions, Harlem began Their art displayed a non-discriminated lifestyle http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/a/african_american_4.html
Rent Parties in Harlem Group 4, Period 7 By Nam-Deok Koh, Bryan Bampenchow
WHAT Social occasion Tenants hire a musician or bands to play Pass hat to raise money for their rents Parties within apartment Everyone is welcomed Jazz
WHO • A’lelia Walker • Threw hundred of parties • Wayside Printer • White man, helped to spread parties news with his portable press. (size of business card) • Duke Ellington • Pianist and Composer during Harlem (Jazz)
WHY • Collected money “passing the hats” • Helping Harlem dwellers with rising rents • People could avoid eviction • Cheap way to help friend • Cheaper than most entertainment • Find out who needs help • For entertainment for guests
RESULT Mostly played Jazz at parties Helped its growth and development in the Harlem Renaissance It was popular icon White could not ignore Blacks’ unique background All cultures are important Transformed African-American culture
WORKS CITED http://history-is-made-at-night.blogspot.com/2007/01/rent-parties.html http://www.newton.k12.ma.us/bigelow/classroom/moore/harlem/index.html http://www.1920s-fashion-and-music.com/Harlem-Renaissance-1920s.html http://kottke.org/08/02/harlem-rent-parties-and-fats-waller http://www.ushistory.org/us/46e.asp
Black Economy By: Emily Loughlin and Gabby Bank
Harlem ownership • African Americans owned 89% of Harlem in the renaissance • Rise in successful Black businesses and professional people • In the 1930’s blacks owned businesses • laundry mats • dry cleaners • Banks • Churches • real estate • commercial revenue • school buildings • cinemas • grocery stores • brownstones.
Real estate In 1900’s a few blacks could afford to move uptown to Harlem Whites tried to prevent this from happening but all attempts failed and real estate prices dropped Whites fled because of the fear of integration Realtors stood to gain from blacks entering the neighborhood and this movement was encouraged
general 1920-1940 period of great cultural, economic and identity assertion for blacks The roaring 20’s allowed black culture to progress Harlem had an impact on African American ideals and culture Blacks took over formerly “white” parts in Harlem First time segregation affected economy
Work Cited http://hiphoprepublican.org/contributors/brandon-brice/2009/05/06/economics-the-new-slavery-in-black-america http://www.kurahulanda.edu/temporary-harlem-renaissance
Communism and the Harlem Renaissance By: Lauren Streufert and Ryan Fonseca
Communism A revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless state Influenced history of the 20th century Karl Marx created the concept of communism Containment Policy prevented spread of communism after World War II (1946)
Harlem Renaissance Cultural movement in the 1920s and 1930s Also known as the “New Negro Movement” Although in New York, others were influenced in Paris African Americans formed own society within greater white America Jazz musicians were very prevalent in Harlem
Communism in the Harlem Renaissance • Communist Party found a home in Harlem during the Depression • Communism helped fund cultural organizations • Federal Negro Theatre • Community Arts Center • “In the end Communism will triumph– I want to help bring that day” –W.E.B Du Bois
Works Cited http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harlem_Renaissance http://www.tcnj.edu/~fisherc/black_and_red.html
The NAACP and the National Urban League By: John Hawkins GuilleBosley
Purpose The purpose of the NAACP is to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic rights of colored people. The purpose of the National Urban League is to provide economic empowerment, educational opportunities, and the guarantee of civil rights for the underserved in America
Impact The NAACP has fought for the rights of many colored people, causing a large movement in the country that has changed the lives of millions. The NUL has provided education and care to many young underserved children, giving them the opportunity to go to school and have better lives.
Major Players Benjamin Todd Jealous is the president of the NAACP. He has spent his whole life specializing in social justice, public service, and human rights activism. Marc H. Morial is the president of the NUL. His past careers as an entrepreneur, lawyer, senator, professor, legislator, and mayor all led up to his rightful spot as president of the NUL.
Works Cited http://www.nul.org/ http://www.naacp.org/
Harlem Renaissance Impact on American Literature
Zora Neale Hurston • Zora Neale Hurston took another route out of the Harlem Renaissance and embraced a Black Diaspora consciousness, that saw the logical extension and exploration of Black culture • In the Caribbean her work connected with that of a younger generation that included such dancers and choreographers as Katherine Dunham and Pearl Primus. • Zora became close friends with Langston hughes, another great writer. They both collaborated on a play. Zora wrote the play and Hughes created the plot. • http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu
Langston Hughes • The works of Langston Hughes continues to reverberate throughout our multiethnic American culture. • He is a writer of poetry, plays, novels, and short stories. • He is spokesperson for African American culture and one of the dominant figures during this period. • He famously wrote about the period that "the negro was in vogue" which was later paraphrased as "when Harlem was in vogue". • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langston_Hughes
W. E. B. Du Bois • Du Bois grew up in a tolerant community and experienced little racism as a child. • Du Bois graduated from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate. • He became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. • Du Bois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. • He published three autobiographies, each of which contains insightful essays on sociology, politics and history. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._E._B._Du_Bois
Growth of Music in Harlem Jazz Age, Public Reception, Impact on Music Samuel Gibbs James Vought
http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1989/1/89.01.05.x.htmlhttp://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1989/1/89.01.05.x.html The Harlem community banded together to be model for other black urban areas. Renaissance began after WWI with uprising in things like literature, art, and music. New York established as main area of black music. Louis Armstrong becomes famous trumpet player.
www.prattlibrary.org Musicians of Harlem perform all types of music, including styles that were new at the time Incorporated themes, melodies, or rhythms from African-American spirituals Classical music led to jazz, which became huge in NY
www.yale.edu Appreciation for anything done by African-Americans in the US Rent Parties, filled with artists and fans, helped the Harlem Renaissance grow Music went from “Ragtime” and “Theatre” music to “The Swing Era”, eventually leading to the “bebop” and more dancing
Jazz went from more of an upbeat tempo to more of a “cool” style, often called blues. Jazz and music played by African-Americans became very popular for white Americans, and almost everyone in the US was listening to it. This style of music and dancing changed American lifestyles and continued to grow in Harlem in the 1900’s Jazz is big influence on modern music
The Great Depression’s Impact on the Harlem Renaissance By Aris Simsarian & Julian Petrie
The Harlem renaissance which began after WWI faded away when the great depression came about in the 1930’s The renaissance seemed to take a new direction during the early 1930’s The depression initially changed the direction of the renaissance but eventually led to its demise
A New Direction • During the 1930’s the motive of the black man to enhance their culture shifted. • Before the Great Depression, the black people were said to be suave, artistic, and occasionally primitive. • The blacks took on a more active political role in the 1930’s. • They possibly wanted to help fix the problems in the government regarding the depression and therefore took on a more politically active role. • Showed that blacks could be more than just artistic in this renaissance
The depression’s economic downturn led to the departure of Harlem's prominent writers The Great Depression removed much of the ability for both the artists and their patrons to support them. The Harlem riot of 1935 was the event that marked the end of the renaissance
Hyperlinks http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/february98/harlem5.html http://www.ushistory.org/us/46e.asp
Harlem Race Riot of the 1930’s Group 16: Jennifer Donegan Courtney Hitzeman
March 19th, 1935 Puerto Rican, Lino Rivera, 16, caught shop lifting Employee threatened to beat him Rivera reacted by biting his hand Police were called, crowds built up, rumors spread People believed Rivera had been beaten to death