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Mapping the Cortex. To be human, more does matter. Brains of Mammals. More cortical surface area. KW 2-2. Hemispheres. Two brains in one. Lobes . Based on skull bones. Phrenology . Franz Gall. Broca’s discovery. Neuorologist working in Paris in 1860’s Patient called “Tan”

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mapping the cortex

Mapping the Cortex

To be human, more does matter

brains of mammals
Brains of Mammals

More cortical surface area

KW 2-2


Two brains in one


Based on skull bones


Franz Gall

broca s discovery
Broca’s discovery
  • Neuorologist working in Paris in 1860’s
  • Patient called “Tan”
  • Understood commands
  • Couldn’t speak
  • After Tan’s death, Broca found area of damage in frontal lobe
tan s brain
Tan’s Brain
  • Broca presented case study on Tan in 1862
korbinian brodmann
Korbinian Brodmann
  • 1868-1918
  • Neurologist
  • Research suggested by Alois Alzheimer
  • Mapped the cell structure of the brain
  • 52 discrete areas
  • First complete and accurate map (1909)
brodmann areas of cortex
Brodmann Areas of Cortex

Numbered areas to changes in cell structure

Kw 2-21

penfield s neurosurgery
Penfield’s Neurosurgery

Wilder Penfield:

A pioneer in neurosurgery

Temporal lobe epilepsy

First studies of living, reacting brain

motor and sensory cortex
Motor and Sensory Cortex

Note difference in cell structure:

Brodmann maps

One of Penfield’s


Motor and Sensory strips

KW 2-22

sensory strip contains
Sensory strip contains
  • Skin Sensations
    • pressure
    • warmth
    • cold
    • pain
also on sensory strip are
Also on sensory strip are
  • Kinesthesis
    • the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
  • Vestibular Sense
    • the sense of body movement and position
    • including the sense of balance
sensory and motor strips
Sensory and Motor Strips
  • Contralateral control
  • Amount of cortex related to abilities not size of body area
  • Sensory and motor side by side
visual cortex responds
Visual cortex responds
  • Functional MRI scan of the visual cortex activated by light shown in the subject’s eyes`
broca s area
Broca’s area

Broca’s located next to

motor strip area for face

(light blue)

Broca’s area

KW 9-17

carl wernicke
Carl Wernicke
  • 1848-1904
  • Born in Poland
  • Educated in Germany
  • Psychiatry and neurology
  • Studies on receptive aphasia in 1874
  • Wernicke’s area in temporal lobe
wernicke s area
Wernicke’s area
  • Patient unable to comprehend commands
  • Able to speak but speech lacked meaning
  • Wernicke’s area next to auditory area on temporal lobe
prefrontal lobes
Prefrontal Lobes

Frontal lobes

Area just behind the forehead

limbic and frontal lobes
Limbic and Frontal Lobes

Limbic system and fontal lobes interact to control behavior

KW 11-15

egas moniz
Egas Moniz
  • 1875-1955
  • Portuguese neurologist and politician
  • Developed angiogram to visualize blood supply to brain
  • Frontal lobe surgery
  • Nobel prize in 1949
  • First lobotomy in US preformed in 1937 by Walter Freeman
  • Calming effect
  • Less anxious
  • Lack of care and concern
  • Loss of motivation

KW 11-24

gage recreated
Gage Recreated
  • New imaging techniques allow us to see how rod passed through Gage’s frontal lobes.

KW 1-5

visiting gage site
Visiting Gage Site

For directions, visit Gage website at