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Figurative Language and Argument

Figurative Language and Argument

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Figurative Language and Argument

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  1. Figurative Language and Argument Giving style to your substance

  2. Figurative Language First Strength: Aids in understanding by likening something unknown to something known. Ex: Watson and Crick

  3. Figurative Language Aids your argument by making it extremely memorable. Ex: Langston Hughes

  4. Langston Hughes“Harlem-A Dream Deferred” What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over- Like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags Like a heavy load. Or does it explode?

  5. What do you remember? Images: Message:

  6. Tropes Involve a change in the ordinary signification, or meaning, of a word or phrase Schemes A special arrangement of words Two Main Classifications

  7. Tropes • Metaphor Offers an IMPLIED comparison between two things and thereby clarifies and enlivens many arguments. See page 289

  8. Tropes Simile A DIRECT comparison between two things Easy to spot… “like” and “as” p. 289-290

  9. Tropes Analogy Compare two different or dissimilar things for special effect p. 290

  10. Tropes Hyperbole The use of overstatement for special effect. Often used in comedy, but definitely has a place in serious writing. ex: page 292

  11. Tropes Understatement Requires a muted, quiet message to make its point. Can be used well in humor or serious writing. p. 293

  12. Tropes Rhetorical Questions These questions don’t require answers. They are used to assert or deny something about an argument. ex: p. 294

  13. Tropes Antonomasia Shorthand substitutions of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name. p. 294

  14. Tropes Irony EDUCATIONPrinceton Cuts Number of A'sGiven to Students Down to 41% Hopes lower grades will produce a future president. Source: Ironic Times

  15. irony Wal-Mart Accused in Court of Denying Workers Lunch Breaks “They can't afford lunch on what we're paying them,” explains company lawyer. Source: Ironic Times

  16. Schemes Schemes are figures that depend on word order…SYNTAX Here are a few you are likely to see

  17. Schemes Parallelism Uses grammatically similar words, phrases, or clauses for special effect. p. 296

  18. Schemes Antithesis Use of parallel structures to mark contrast or opposition p. 296

  19. Schemes Inverted word order Parts of a sentence or clause are not in the usual subject-verb-object order. p. 296

  20. Schemes Anaphora Effective repetition for emphasis p. 297

  21. Schemes Reversed Structures Changing the structure of a sentence for special effect, or to make it more memorable p. 297

  22. Caution: While these techniques are extremely effective, if you over use them you will not achieve your goals. (“stacking the deck”) Watch the connotations of words

  23. Caution The AP exam is not a “scavenger hunt” for language. AP essays are weakened by mere listing of fancy terms Always mark off style, but comment on how it relates to the substance!!!