World War I Worldwide impact
World War I (1914-1918) • World War I (1914-1918) was caused by competition among industrial nations in Europe and a failure of diplomacy. The war transformed European and American life, wrecked the economies of Europe, and planted the seeds for a second world war.
Questions • What were the factors that produced World War I? • What were the major events of the war? • Who were the major leaders? • What were the outcomes and global effects of World War I? • What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Alliances • The alliance system in Europe started with Prussia • Prussia wanted to unite the German states into a German nation • Germany united (allied) with Austria-Hungary and Italy • France and Germany were enemies and so France allied with Russia
Alliances • Great Britain remained neutral until Germany started to build up its navy • Great Britain loosely allied with France and Russia forming the Triple Entente • Nationalism – intense pride for one’s homeland was a powerful idea in Europe • Self-determination – the idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government, was a basic idea of nationalism
“Balkan Powder Keg” • In the Balkans, many ethnic groups fought to gain political unity and self-rule • This led to conflicts between Austria-Hungry and neighboring groups in the Balkan regions • Russia supports “Serbs/Slavs” • This will end up being the “straw that breaks the camel back” • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Alliances • A small country called Serbia, allied with Russia, wanted a unified Balkan nation • A Serb national assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand • This assassination forced Austria-Hungary to declare war with Germany siding with them • Russia, allied with Serbia, declared war with France siding with them (France wanted Germany defeated)
MAIN causes of WW I Militarism / Alliances / Imperialism / Nationalism Spark: Archduke Ferdinand (Austria) assassinated
What is Militarism? • A rise in military expenditure, • Increase in the size of land military and naval forces • More influence of the military men upon the policies of the civilian government, • But note that militarism is also a government's attitude of mind, seeing war as a valid means of foreign policy. • (GERMANY was especially militaristic.) • Think of Otto Von Bismarck and Realpolitik
Causes of World War I • Militarism • Alliances that divided Europe into competing camps • Imperialism:The domination of the political, economic or cultural life of another country • Nationalistic feelings • Diplomatic failures • Competition over colonies
World War I The war began in Europe in 1914: Central Powers Germany and Austria-Hungary Allies Britain, France, and Russia.
Major Events • Assassination of Austria’s Archduke Ferdinand, he was shot by a Serbian nationalist. • United States enters the war - 1917 • Russia leaves the war – 1917 (Communist Revolution led by Lenin)
Major leaders • Woodrow Wilson – President of United States • Kaiser Wilhelm II – German leader • Tsar Nicholas II – Russian leader
The War Western Front: France Trench Warfare
Eastern Front: Russia Drop out of war in 1917 after Bolshevik Revolution
Advanced Weapons Airplane Gas Tanks
Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”
United States enters the War Loyalty to England Why????
German “unrestricted submarine warfare” Lusitania: 1100 people dead / 120 Americans
Zimmerman Telegram Germany to ask Mexico to attack the U.S.
The YanksAre Coming! “To Make The World Safe For Democracy”
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 End of WW I
Introduction • World War I was over. The killing had stopped. The terms of peace, however, still had to be worked out. On January 18, 1919, a conference to establish those terms began at the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris. Attending the talks, known as the Paris Peace Conference, were delegates representing 32 countries. For one year, this conference would be the scene of vigorous, often bitter debate. The Allied powers struggled to solve their conflicting aims in various peace treaties.
Key Leaders Come Together • This group of leaders was known as the Big Four dominated the peace talks in Paris at Versailles.
United States • President Woodrow Wilson
France • Georges Clemenceau
Great Britain • Prime Minister, David Lloyd George
Italy • Vittorio Orlando
Outcomes and global effect • Colonies’ participation in the war, which increased demands for independence • End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and Austro-Hungarian empires • Enormous cost of the war in lives, property, and social disruption
Wilson’s Plan for Peace • Wilson proposes Fourteen Points—an outline for lasting world peace. • Calls for free trade and an end to alliances and military buildups • Promotes self-determination—right of people to govern their own nation • Envisions international peace-keeping body to settle world disputes
Treaty of Versailles • Forced Germany to accept responsibility for war and loss of territory and to pay reparations • Limited the German military • League of Nations
The Versailles Treaty • Britain and France oppose Wilson’s ideas and want to punish Germany. • Allies and Germany sign an accord—the Treaty of Versailles—in June 1919. • Creates League of Nations—international organization to keep peace. • Blames Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages (reparations) to nations. • League to rule German colonies until deemed ready for independence.
Treaty of Versailles (Verse-EYE) • The French and English insisted on punishment of Germany. • A League of Nationswas created. • National boundaries were redrawn, creating many new nations.
Wilson’s 14 Points • Wilson’s goals for the world after the war • “War to end all wars!”
Principles of 14 Points • Self determination • Arms reduction • Non punishment • Free Seas • No secret treaties • Free trade
14th Point • League of Nations • Settle conflicts before they turn into war • Wilson’s most important point • Most controversial
Treaty of Versailles • Germany • Full blame for war • Demilitarized • $30 Billion bill (reparations) • League of Nations created • No Germany • No U.S.
1917 Revolution and Rise of Communism • Tsarist Russia entered World War I as an absolute monarchy with sharp class divisions between the nobility and the peasants. The grievances of workers and peasants were not resolved by the Tsar. Inadequate administration in World War I led to revolution and an unsuccessful provisional government. A second revolution by the Bolsheviks created the communist state that ultimately became the U.S.S.R.
Questions • Why did Russia erupt in revolution while fighting in World War I? • How did communism rise in Russia?
Causes of 1917 Revolutions • Defeat in war with Japan in 1905 • Landless peasantry • Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II • Military defeats and high casualties in World War I.
Russian Revolution • Czar Nicholas II’s reforms were too little too late • No industrial power = no national power • Loss to the Japanese was humiliating announcement of weakness • WWI participation sucked Russia dry and made civil war inevitable • Weak resistance to well organized and mobilized Bolshevik radicals • Total abdication and assassination end the Romanov Dynasty
Rise of communism • Bolshevik Revolution and civil war • Vladimir Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) • Joseph Stalin, Lenin’s successor • According to communism, history is dominated by the struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat – the upper class and the laborer. • Karl Marx, a German economist/philosopher is credited with the idea of communism.
Vladimir Lenin • Marxist Revolutionary • NEP allowed some capitalism and helped Soviet economy recover from early communist stagnation • Dies of stroke, 1924
Co-founder with Lenin Organized and trained the RED ARMY Practice of decimation made Red Army “effective” Rival of Stalin’ Assassinated in Mexico with an ice-pick Leon Trotsky
Understanding the League of Nations and the mandate system • After World War I, international organizations and agreements were established to avoid future conflicts. • What was the League of Nations and why did it fail? • Why was the mandate system created?
League of Nations • International cooperative organization • Established to prevent future wars • United States not a member • Failure of League because it did not have power to enforce its decisions