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  1. CHAPTER 7 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

  2. Chapter 7, Section 1 Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion

  3. French Wars of Religion • Calvinists vs. Christians • What were they doing? • Aggressively trying to win converts and eliminate each others authority

  4. Two Groups: • Huguenots • Who are they? • French Protestants influenced by John Calvin • Usually nobles – higher class • Powerful threat to the crown • Why? • Made up of the powerful and rich who have a huge influence • Problem for the Huguenots: • Catholics still outnumbered them

  5. Ultra-Catholics • Who are they? • Catholic extreme group • Strongly disliked the Huguenots

  6. Absolute Monarch #1 – Henry IV aka Henry of Navarre Reigned from: 1594-1610

  7. Huguenots and Catholics were at war • Henry IV becomes King and gives up Protestantism for Catholicism • He declares that Huguenots can live in Paris peacefully and have their own houses of worship. This is known as the Edict of Nantes signed in 1598 • Catholicism was seen as the French religion and Huguenots still had the right to worship and enjoy all political privileges

  8. Many loved the idea of peace but some hated Henry for his compromises of religion • He was assassinated in 1610

  9. Spain: Phillip II and Militant Catholicism • Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor, inherited Spain, Spain’s American colonies, parts of Italy and lands in Austria and the Netherlands • Charles V divided his empire in 1556 and gave his son, Philip II, Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American Colonies • Philip II would go on to be the most powerful ruler in Europe

  10. Charles V

  11. Absolute Monarch #2 – King Philip II • King from 1556 – 1598

  12. Ushered in an age of Spanish greatness both politically and culturally • In 1580, Philip seized the Portuguese kingdom, which had strong holds in Africa, India and East Indies

  13. Who and how did he unite everyone politically and culturally? • Who: • Spain • Netherlands • Americas • Possessions in Italy • How: • Had to be Catholic • Had to follow the monarchy

  14. Problem in the Netherlands • Spain = Catholic Dutch = Calvinists • Philip raised taxes in Spanish Netherlands and tried to destroy the Protestants by taking away their privileges

  15. Problem in 1566 • Calvinists destroy Catholic statues in churches • What social class did this? Nobles • What did Philip do? Sent thousands of troops over to crush the rebellion • The Dutch fought back, declared their independence from Spain

  16. When King Philip ended his reign in 1598 Spain had the largest population in the world • Seen as the greatest power of the age • Was this really the case? Was Spain the greatest and the most prosperous? • NO • Treasury was empty • Philip spent too much money on the wars = bankrupt • Armed forces were out of date • Inefficient government

  17. Who was really the most powerful? ENGLAND FRANCE

  18. Absolute Monarch #3 – Queen Elizabeth I • Reigned: 1558 -1603

  19. 2 Goals of Elizabeth: RELIGION PROTECTION

  20. Religion • During her reign, England became the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe and laid the foundation for a world empire • She got rid of many of the laws that favored Catholicism set by her half-sister, Mary • Elizabeth created an Act of Supremacy and named herself the “only supreme governor” of both the church and state • The Church of England under her remained mostly Protestant

  21. Protection • Felt that war would be disastrous for England • She wanted to keep Spain and France from being too powerful • How did she do this? • She would support the weaker of the 2 countries • Ex: If Spain was becoming too powerful she would support France and vice versa • Plunder Spanish ships • Sir Francis Drake would plunder Spanish ships sailing the Caribbean

  22. Problems with Spain • Philip II always wanted to take over England • 2 reasons • Power and influence • Restate Catholicism as the religion over Protestantism

  23. Problems with Spain: • Philip II always wanted to take over England • 2 reasons • Power and influence • Restate Catholicism as the religion over Protestantism

  24. What did he do? • 1588 - Created an armada • What is an armada?Fleet of warships • Problems with Philip’s Plan? • Didn’t have the manpower • Didn’t have the ships that would compare to England

  25. Elizabeth’s Second Great Seal • Who won? • The English • It was a very unsuccessful attack for the Spanish • Very successful for Elizabeth – raising her approval, prestige, and power- and humiliating Philip II

  26. Historical TWEETS • You will create a total of TWO historical tweets about TWO of the following absolute rulers: • Henry IV (a.k.a. Henry of Navarre) • Charles V • King Phillip II • Queen Elizabeth I • Your tweets must be about a significant event in the ruler’s reign. • Remember that a tweet is short and to the point. • An example would be: • See @KingPhillipIIgirls really can rule land AND sea.

  27. Ch. 7-Sect. 2 Social Crises, War, and Revolution

  28. Is There Honor In The Honor Code? • On your half sheet, please answer the Pre-Reading Question. • As I am reading the situation, please answer the Reflection On Reading section questions. • We will discuss this as a class. • Remember to hand in your reading

  29. Back to Notes!

  30. From 1560 to 1650 Europe witnessed severe economic and social crisis • One major problem they faced was inflation • What is it? • Rising prices

  31. What caused this? • The great influx of gold and silver from the Americas was one factor • Growing population in the 16th century increased the demand of land and food and drove up prices for both • Mines were producing less silver • Fleets were being pirated • Tradewas declining as well

  32. Populations were increasing at 1600s – then began to falter in the 1650s • Why? • Warfare • Plague • Famine • Problem? • Caused more social tensions between the people • Loss of population led to a loss of specialized goods and crafts which led to the falling of the economy

  33. The Witchcraft Trials

  34. What is witchcraft? • The practice of magic by people supposedly in league with the devil • Where did it take place? • Villages in Europe • What was the problem? • During the Inquisition they hunted for heretics now added witchcraft because it was seen as a devil religion

  35. The Process of the Inquisition Activity • Get into groups of 4 (no groups over 4 members) • Take your half sheet with you! • Complete the half sheet using the information on the cards in your group. • You will have less than 10 min. to complete this activity

  36. Back to Notes!

  37. Who were the victims? • Common people • Poor • No property • Women • Single • Widowed • Over the age of 50

  38. Return to “The Honor Code” • I need 3 hard workers • As I give you your task sheets, be conscious of what I am asking you to do (READ carefully!) • You will only have 5 min. to prepare your first task

  39. The Investigation • The Administration will question each accused student • The interview will last 2 min. • Students- You do not have much time to make your case • Amin.- You do not have much time to question your suspect • The students will have a few seconds at the end of the round of questioning to make any final statements • Admin. & Students- You should take notes during the trial so you can prepare a closing statement

  40. Activity Breakdown Discussion • What was your overall experience with the investigation: Positive? Negative? • Was justice done in any of the cases? • Did the accused students provided decent defenses for themselves? • Do you think the Administration had preconceived notions about the students before going into the investigation? • Do you think these influenced the trial?

  41. Back to Notes!

  42. What did they confess to doing? • Sworn allegiance to the devil • Attended nightly ceremonies • Used evil spells • Putting spells on their neighbors • Why did they confess? • They were being tortured

  43. By the 1650s the hysteria had slowed down • Governments no longer wanted to deal with the trials (they were expensive and no one cared anymore)

  44. S.S. 2: February, 16th • On your desk: • Absolutism Notes (Ch. 7) • Be sure to review your notes each night!! • Bellringer: • Please define the following terms: • Terrorist • freedom fighter

  45. Thirty Years War • Peace of Augsburg caused many problems with the Calvinists • What was the Peace of Augsburg? • Allowed German princes to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism within the lands they controlled • Why is there a problem? • The Calvinism had not been recognized in the settlements yet

  46. War Duration(Years): • 1618-1648 • Who did it involve? • Hapsburg Holy Roman emperors – Catholic • Bohemian nobles - Protestants (Calvinists) • Rebelled against the Catholic authority

  47. Where was it fought in Europe? • Germany • But all of Europe was fighting at one time except for England • Which country suffered the most? • Germany • Why? • That’s where all the fighting was concentrated • What ended the war? • The Peace of Westphalia– German states including Calvinists ones could determine their own religion, recognized as independent states because each received power to conduct its own foreign policy

  48. Revolutions in England • During the 17th century there were made rebellions and civil problems • The largest in England was the English Revolution • How did it start? • Struggle between the king and Parliament to determine who had the most power

  49. Elizabeth I died in 1603 and brought the Tudor line to an end • The Stuarts picked up the legacy – they were related to the Tudors (cousins to Elizabeth)

  50. Absolute Monarch #4 – James I • Reigned: 1603-1625