SA MUSICMoshito’05 Nadia Bulbulia ICASA www.icasa.org.za
“Local is Very Lekker” • The primary aims of South African content regulation are: • to develop, protect and promote a national and provincial identity, culture • and character; and to create vibrant, dynamic, creative and economically productive local industries.
Introduction • The South African Content Position Paper and Regulations published 15 February 2002 setsminimum local content percentages and requirements for different categories of broadcasting licence holders who devote 15% or more of their broadcasting to music. • public sound broadcasting licence holder , a minimum of 40% to be broadcast during the performance period, which is 05h00 – 23h00 • public commercial and private commercial, a minimum of 25% of music must be local music and • for community sound broadcasting licence it must be 40% local music spread evenly throughout the said period.
Introduction According to ICASA’s Monitoring & Complaints Unit (MCU) • by and large broadcasters across the spectrum comply with the South African music content quotas. • a few exceptions and in those instances, our findings point more to lack of capacity and lack of South African produced music to suit certain niched audiences
Community and public broadcasters • Quotas were raised to 40% for this sector as the majority of broadcasters were already well over 40% on a weekly basis. • Regulations make provision for broadcasters to reach the minimum of 40% in other ways (e.g. interviews with South African musicians) • MCU also notes that some of the community radio stations’ local content percentage on average per month is as follows; (January and June this year). • Jozi FM 50% - 58%, • Radio Mafisa 60% - 64%, • Lethlabile 56% - 60%.
Community and public broadcasters, cont • most community broadcasters do not need to supplement their adherence to the quota by interviewing and/or breaking new artists • most of them are committed to doing so and we find that this helps to bring artists closer to people as envisaged by the regulations. • some of the community broadcasters in rural areas like Ficksburg and Senekal (e.g. Naledi Community Radio) in the Free State, have challenges in terms of music supply by some record companies. • Despite all of these challenges and shortcomings most community broadcasters have done well.
Community and public broadcasters, cont. • Community broadcasters in rural areas perform well above the quota, with some achieving 80% local music due to the fact that most not only embrace local music but also promote indigenous music, the lifestyle and cultural values that dominate certain provinces .e.g. Setsoto FM, in Ficksburg, in the Free State a predominantly a Sotho speaking area promote traditional Sotho music and cultural values side by side. Sotho language artists that one might never hear of on any Gauteng radio station or unknown are on a high rotation or play listed at Setsoto FM. • Other community broadcasters use their production facilities to record local groups; this also presents an advantage for an artist to be play listed at that particular radio station.
Commercial broadcasters • Some commercial broadcasters e.g. Kaya FM, YFM and P4 Cape Town far exceed the required 25% • YFM local content output between January and June 2005 was 55% - 60% note: YFM was awarded its licence in a competitive bid due to its commitment to 50% local music • Some of the commercial broadcasters like Kaya FM and YFM have assisted in building the industry in various ways. • YFM has created a platform for commercial DJ’s to be producers, for example Oscar Warona, DJ Cleo, DJ Sbu who have added flavour on the local music scene with artists like Brown Dash, Pitch Black Afro etc. • This has enabled the artists to expose their music to a large audience.
The public broadcaster The MCU also found that: • Most SABC radio stations play no less than 60% of South African music per month. • Stations like uKhozi FM, Lesedi FM, Motsweding FM are an example of such. • Niched broadcasters like Lotus FM have new licence conditions which attached special conditions like the developing of local Indian music. • These conditions have yet to be measured and be determined in a year or so.
Niched broadcasters • Although this is not a licensed category as such, there are broadcasters that cater for certain narrow interest, for example classical music lovers, foreign language broadcasters, e.g New Panhellenic and Chinese community radio. • These radio stations often struggle and have mostly not resorted to the provision that allows them to approach the Authority for exemption. • Some of them have in the past approached the Authority for this concession and these applications have not yet been considered by the Authority. • As explained above SABC’s Lotus FM has approached the Authority with such an arrangement.
Exemption • The regulations also make provision for broadcasters to apply to be exempted from meeting these quotas provided upon written application and showing of good cause by the licence holder. • The issue raised by radio stations is that there is not enough music to suit their format • ICASA supports the local music industry and conducts workshops with musicians as well as broadcasters and record companies.
Comments made by stakeholders other than radio stations on local content during the last review: 2001- 2002 • BMG Africa, record company “Crucial to local content (quota debate) is the ability of the recorded music industry to deliver a sufficient quantity of recording of sufficient quality…” p 15 of submission. • Steve Dyer – Music Director/Producer/Performer Music has the potential to be of huge economic benefit to South Africa…We need a long term approach to the success of our industry” submission by e-mail • Matthew van der Want, “It is essential that local artists get played by local stations in an attempt to “level the playing fields” “submission by e-mail.
Comments, cont. • National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) The number of registered record companies expanded from 104 in 1997 to 140 at the end of 1998 also a reentry of 3 major companies after 1990. • There has been an increase in investment in the production of local content and has led to more South African music being produced since the introduction of the local content quota. • The strengthening of the domestic music industry between 1995-99 was underpinned by: • Increased investment in domestic music by record companies, in particular the majors leading to a greater diversity and quality • The emergence of new genres such as kwaito that have increased; • The licensing of new radio stations to broadcast emerging South African genres;
Comments, cont. • International exposure of South African music at trade shows and music festivals; and • Increased consumer demand driven by moderate economic growth. • Supply-side measures introduced by the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology [as it then was] and the Department of Trade and Industry • The expansion of the Export and Marketing Export Incentive Scheme, which now funds the attendance of South African record companies at international trade fairs; • The Music Industry Development Initiative (MIDI) launched a successful South African Music Day in 1999. SA Music Week followed in 2000”
Music Content Quotas • The sector is encouraged to produce and play more than the minimum • These are the minimum quota’s
Flexibility in fulfilment of Quota • The following will qualify as contributions, other than the airplay of tracks: • the broadcast of live music; • interviews with South African musicians; and • the promotion of new musicians.
Comments from Radio Stations July 2005 • Rainbow Community Radio, Station Manager Mr Humphrey Berkenstock • Agrees, remarkable increase on listenership; they continue to promote local music; currently they play 50% of it without even prescribing play lists to their presenters; every Tuesday the whole day they play only local; interact with artists and record companies to impress upon them to produce quality music the station can play. • Y-FM - Nkosinathi Mbelu • Agrees, more quality artists out there; commercial value of the music has also become better and improving; play up to 60% local; the industry can compete also at an international level; have ongoing interaction with artists and recording companies to improve even more.