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The Enjoyment of Music 10 th Shorter Edition

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  1. The Enjoyment of Music 10thShorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  2. PART ONEThe Materials of Music The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  3. Unit IThe Elements of Music Tempo Conjunct motion Meter Melody Dynamics Harmony Homophonic Texture The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  4. Prelude: Listening to Music Today • Typical places and ways of listening to music • Understanding music requires active listening The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  5. Some Practical Suggestions • Practice • Listening Guides and the Resource CD • Knowledge of musical notation is not necessary • Hear music in a live performance! • Glossary (Appendix II) • Listening activities with the Resource CD The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  6. Attending Concerts • Recordings vs. live concerts • Art music vs. popular music The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  7. To find a concert, check listings: • For on-campus concerts (Music Department) • In local and college newspapers • On Web sites of concert calendars The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  8. www.wwnorton.com/enjoy The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  9. The Enjoyment of Music 10thShorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  10. 1. Melody: Musical Line “It is the melody which is the charm of music, and it is that which is most difficult to produce. The invention of a fine melody is a work of genius.” - Haydn Joseph Haydn The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  11. Defining Melody Melody: a coherent succession of single pitches Billings: “Chester” Bach: “The Well-Tempered Clavier” The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  12. Note: musical symbol for sound Half note Quarter note Eighth note Half note The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  13. Characteristics of Melody:Range “America” Narrow Medium “Greensleeves” Wide Strauss: Don Juan The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  14. Characteristics of Melody: Contour Strauss: Don Juan Arch Ascending Mozart: Piano Concerto Descending Wave Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite Tchaikovsky: The Nutcracker The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  15. Characteristics of Melody Conjunct Movement: A smooth, connected melody that moves principally by small intervals. Beethoven: String Quartet No. 1 The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  16. Characteristics of Melody Disjunct movement: A disjointed or disconnected melody with many leaps. Brahms: Violin Concerto in D, Op. 77, III The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  17. The Structure of Melody Phrase: A unit of meaning within a larger structure, like a musical sentence. Cadence: A resting place in a musical phrase. Mozart: Symphony No. 40, I The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  18. The Structure of Melody Rhyme Scheme: Poetic phrases and musical phrases generally align. Billings: “Chester” The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  19. The Structure of Melody Countermelody: An added melody sounding against another melody. Prokofiev: Violin Concerto The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  20. www.wwnorton.com/enjoy The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  21. The Enjoyment of Music 10thShorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  22. 2. Rhythm: Musical Time Rhythm: Length, or duration of individual notes. Beat: Regular pulsation. Accent: Beats that are stronger. Beethoven: “Turkish March” (duple) The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  23. 2. Rhythm: Simple Meter Duple Meter Bar line Measure Triple Meter Quadruple Meter (Common Time) The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  24. 2. Rhythm: Meter Sousa: “Stars and Stripes Forever” Duple Meter Mahler: Symphony No. 1, III Purcell: Rondeau from Abdelazar Triple Meter Vivaldi: The Four Seasons, “Autumn” Quadruple Meter (Common Time) Brahms: Symphony No. 1, IV Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  25. Musical Time Metrical Patterns: Simple recurring patterns, typically 2, 3, or 4 beats grouped in a measure. Downbeats The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  26. Musical Time: Compound Meter 6/8 9/8 The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  27. Musical Time: Compound Meter 6/8 Corelli: Violin Sonata, Gigue 9/8 Bach: Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring 12/8 Fauré: Pelleas et Melisande, “Sicilienne” The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  28. Musical Time Syncopation:Deliberate disruption of pattern; accent shifted to a weak beat or offbeat. Borodin: Prince Igor, “Polovetsian Dances” Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, “Dance of the Youths…” Tchaikovsky: Piano Concerto No. 1 The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  29. Musical Time Polyrhythm:Simultaneous use of different rhythmic patterns. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, “Sacrificial Dance…” The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  30. Musical Time Additive Meter: Irregular grouping of beats in a larger pattern. Shankar: Bhimpalasi The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  31. Musical Time Nonmetric: Music without a strong sense of beat or meter. Gregorian chant: “Alleluia, emitte spiritum” Gregorian chant: “Venite, exsultemus domino” The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  32. www.wwnorton.com/enjoy The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  33. The Enjoyment of Music 10thShorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  34. 3. Harmony: Musical Space Vertical aspect of music Chord The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  35. 3. Harmony: Musical Space Scale: A collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order. Octave (descending) Do ti la sol fa mi re do 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  36. The Function of Harmony Triad: three-note chord, do-mi-sol or 1-3-5 The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  37. The Organization of Harmony • Tonic or keynote: First note of scale (do) is “home base” • Tonality Major tonality Minor tonality • Diatonic harmony • Chromatic harmony The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  38. The Organization of Harmony:Tonality Major Tonality Haydn: Symphony No. 94, III Minor Tonality Chopin: Mazurka Quiz Chopin: Prelude Mendelssohn: Symphony No. 4, I Vivaldi: Concerto for Piccolo Haydn: Symphony No. 45, I The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  39. The Organization of Harmony Diatonic Harmony Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, I Chromatic Harmony Bach: Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue Quiz: “Joy to the World” Wagner: Tristan und Isolde Haydn: Trumpet Concerto, III The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  40. Consonance and Dissonance Dissonance Dissonance Dissonance Dissonance: Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, “Dance of the Youths…” Consonance Consonance Consonance: Mendelssohn: Midsummer Night’s Dream, Nocturne dronedronedronedronedrone Drone: Shankar: Bhimpalasi The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  41. www.wwnorton.com/enjoy The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  42. The Enjoyment of Music 10thShorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  43. 4. Musical Texture: Types of Texture Monophony: Single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment. Gregorian chant: Psalm 94, “Venite, exsultemus domino” Gregorian chant: Whitsunday Mass, “Alleluia, emitte…” The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  44. 4. Musical Texture:Types of Texture Heterophony: Texture in which two or more voices (or parts) elaborate the same melody simultaneously, often the result of improvisation. African traditional, Gabon: “Porter’s Song” African traditional: “Herding Song” The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  45. 4. Musical Texture: Types of Texture Polyphony: Two or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture. • NonimitativePolyphony(simultaneous melodies) Rimsky-Korsakov: “Capriccio espagnol, Fandano asturiano” Bach: Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring • ImitativePolyphony Marenzio: “La bella ninfa mia” Handel: Concerto Grosso in G Bach: Concerto for Violin and Oboe, II The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  46. 4. Musical Texture: Types of Texture Homophony: Texture with principal melody and accompanying harmony. Dvořák: Symphony No. 9, II Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  47. 4. Musical Texture: Types of Texture QUIZ: Monophony - Homophony –Polyphony American traditional: “America” Mahler: Symphony No. 1, III Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 21 Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 4, III Billings: “Chester” The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  48. Contrapuntal Devices • Imitation • Canon • Round • Ex.: “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  49. www.wwnorton.com/enjoy The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  50. The Enjoyment of Music 10thShorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition