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The Enjoyment of Music 10 th Shorter Edition

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  1. The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  2. Unit XXV The New Music “From Schoenberg I learned that tradition is a home we must love and forgo.” —Lukas Foss The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  3. 75. New Directions …innovations in the last half of the twentieth century have outstripped the most far-reaching changes of earlier times… The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  4. The Arts since the Mid-Twentieth Century • Social turmoil reflected in the arts • Movements in the arts • Abstract Expressionism • Pop Art • Post-Modernism • Feminist and ethnic art and literature • Widespread experimentation in poetry, literature The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  5. The Arts since the Mid-Twentieth Century • Performance art • John Cage • Laurie Anderson • National schools of filmmaking • Germany • China • Poland John Cage “As these two forms—human and machine—begin to merge a little bit, we’re talking about technology really as a kind of new nature, something to measure against, to make rules from, to investigate.” —Laurie Anderson The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  6. Toward Greater Organization in Music • Application of Schoenberg’s 12-tone method • Total serialism Arnold Schoenberg The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  7. Toward Greater Freedom in Music • Counter to total serialism • Chance determines portions of “happening” • Indeterminate • aleatoric music • open form • Collage • Microtonal scales “My music liberates because I give people the chance to change their minds in the way I’ve changed mine.” —John Cage The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  8. The Postwar Internationalism • United States • Milton Babbitt • John Cage • Earle Brown • Morton Feldman • Italy • Luciano Berio • Greece • Iannis Xenakis The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  9. The Postwar Internationalism • Poland • Krzysztof Penderecki • Germany • Karlheinz Stockhausen • France • Pierre Boulez • Russia • Sofiya Gubaidulina Pierre Boulez The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  10. www.wwnorton.com/enjoy The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  11. The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  12. 76. The New Virtuosity of the Modern Age • Contemporary virtuosity • Avant-garde specialists • Cathy Berberian The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  13. George Crumb (b. 1929) and Avant-Garde Virtuosity • American Composer • Emotional, dramatic, expressive music • University of Pennsylvania • Federico García Lorca “Music [is] a system of proportions in the service of a spiritual impulse.” —George Crumb The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  14. Crumb: Ancient Voices of Children (Listening Guide) • Cycle of songs • Soprano, boy soprano, oboe, mandolin, harp, electric piano, percussion • Voice is used like an instrument • Vocalise • Singing into amplified piano, singing microtones • International percussion • Dark intimations of poetry Listening Guide PDF “I feel that the essential meaning of this poetry is concerned with the most primary things: Life, death, love, the smell of the earth, the sounds of the wind and the sea.” —George Crumb The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  15. www.wwnorton.com/enjoy The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  16. The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  17. 77. Contemporary Composers Look to World Music Important Experimenters • Henry Cowell (1897–1965) Music Japan, India, Iran, rural Ireland, America Foreign scales Tone clusters • Harry Partch (1901–1974) • Microtonal music “I believe composers must forge out of the many influences that play upon them and never close their ears to any part of the world of sound.” —Henry Cowell The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  18. John Cage (1912–1992) • American Composer • Prepared piano to simulate Javanese gamelan • Items inserted in the piano strings • East Asian philosophy • Quest for tranquility • Indeterminacy • Role of silence: 4’33” “I thought I could never compose socially important music. Only if I could invent something new, then would I be useful to society.” —John Cage The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  19. Cage: Sonata V, from Sonatas and Interludes (Listening Guide) • Written for prepared piano • Percussive effects • Non-Western timbre • Seemingly without a clear meter Listening Guide PDF The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  20. The Javanese Gamelan Indonesian music Music for ritual ceremonies Court and shadow puppet theater Two tunings: sléndro pentatonic pélog heptatonic Cyclical rhytmic structure (colotomic) “Simply said, gamelan music is the most beautiful music in the world, and I for one see no reason to do any other kind of music ever again.” - Lou Harrison The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  21. Javanese Gamelan Music: Patalon(Listening Guide)Listening Guide PDF • Central Javanese music • Shadow-puppet theater piece • Pentatonic melodies • Colotomic rhythmic structure The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  22. Bright Sheng and the Meeting of Musical Cultures • Bright Sheng (b.1955) • Innovative contemporary composer • Blends Western and Asian ideas • Artistic suffering during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) • Arrived in US in 1982 • Teaches now at the University of Michigan The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  23. Bright Sheng’s Music • Integrates Western and Eastern elements • Compositional style and instruments • Pipa, sheng, erhu, yangqin, dizi, suona • Evokes Chinese folk songs • China Dreams is a nostalgic work • Set in four movements • Scored for large Western orchestra The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  24. Sheng: China Dreams, Prelude(Listening Guide) • Prelude is the first of four movements • Evocative of Chinese folk music • Pentatonic melodies contrast dissonant chords • Syncopation creates meter-free sound • ABA structure Listening Guide PDF The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  25. An Introduction to Chinese Traditional Music The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  26. Abing (1883–1950) • Chinese composer, born Hua Yanjun, • Orphaned, adopted by Daoist monk • Expelled for playing Daoist music in secular setting • His works are now standards at Chinese music schools • Six works recorded before 1950 The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  27. Abing: The Moon Reflected on the Second Springs (Listening Guide) • Solo erhu • Modern version adds jangqin • Based on a pentatonic scale (D-E-G-A-B) • Melody played 3 times, with ornamentation jangqin Listening Guide PDF The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  28. www.wwnorton.com/enjoy The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  29. The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  30. 78. Music for Films “A film is a composition and the musical composition is an integral part of the design. “ —H. G. Wells The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  31. The Role of Music in Film • Establishes mood, characters, creates a sense of place and time • Irony (running counter to the action) • Principal types of music in a film: Underscoring Source music Leitmotifs “Nonsense. The idea originated with Richard Wagner. Listen to the incidental scoring behind the recitatives in his operas. If Wagner had lived in this century, he would have been the Number One film composer.” —Max Steiner (responding to the idea that he had invented film music) The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  32. Music in the Silent-Film Era • Accompanied by solo piano or organ • Special organs produced effects • Three types of music: • Classical • Well-known tunes • New music The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  33. The Sound Era • Late 1930s: Golden Age of films and film music • Max Steiner • Eric Korngold • Germany, France, and the Soviet Union also pursued filmmaking The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  34. The Postwar Years • Popular genres included with 20th-century art music • Bernard Herrmann • Miklós Rózsa • Theremin included for eerie effects • Later composers • Aaron Copland • Leonard Bernstein • Post-1940s film music • Elmer Bernstein • Jerry Goldsmith The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  35. Beyond Star Wars • Revolutionary visual effects in Star Wars (1977) • Score by John Williams • Full symphony orchestra • Use of leitmotifs The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  36. John Williams • Television in the 1950s and 1960s • Turned to film in the 1960s • 1970s successes: • Star Wars • Close Encounters of the Third Kind • Superman • 80s, 90s, and currently: • Indiana Jones • Jurassic Park • Harry Potter films, Munich, etc. The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  37. Williams: Raiders March, from Raiders of the Lost Ark (Listening Guide) • Heard during closing credits of Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) • Fashioned from two leitmotifs • Indiana Jones and Marion • Three-part form • Indiana Jones theme, Marion's theme, Indiana Jones theme • Instrumentation and beat of a traditional march Listening Guide PDF The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  38. James Horner • Los Angeles • Studied at the University of Southern California, UCLA • Successes: • Star Trek II and III • Apollo 13 • Titanic, etc. The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  39. Synthesizers in 1980s Film Scores • Instrument of choice for popular musicians The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  40. Danny Elfman • Oingo Boingo • Tim Burton • Successes: • Beetlejuice • Batman • Men in Black • Spiderman films • Charlie and the Chocolate Factory “Writing the melody is the easy part…. But then, it’s what you do with it. That’s the skill, that’s the art, that’s what makes a great film score.” —Danny Elfman The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  41. Hans Zimmer • Popular music background • Successes: • Rain Man • The Lion King • Madagascar • Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest, etc. The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  42. Rachel Portman • First woman to win an Academy Award for Best Music • Successes • Emma • The Joy Luck Club • The Cider House Rules • Legally Blonde II • Love Actually • The Princess Diaries II The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  43. www.wwnorton.com/enjoy The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  44. The Enjoyment of Music 10th Shorter Edition The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  45. 79. Technology and Music Two technological trends in the late 1940s and early 50s • Musique concrète • Paris • Pierre Schaeffer • Tape music “I have been waiting a long time for electronics to free music from the tempered scale and limitations of musical instruments. Electronic instruments are the portentous first step toward the liberation of music.” —Edgard Varèse The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  46. Electronische Musik • Cologne • Herbert Eimert • Karlheinz Stockhausen • Oscillator (electronic waveform generator) • Waveform manipulation • Synthesizer The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  47. Evolution of the Synthesizer • RCA 1955 • Columbia-Princeton’s Electronic Music Center in 1959 • Robert Moog and Donald Buchla synthesizer in the 1960s • Morton Subotnik’s Silver Apples of the Moon(1967) • Widespread popularity, Switched-On Bach (1968) • Walter (later Wendy) Carlos The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  48. Electronic Music con’t • Digital frequency modulation synthesis replaced analog systems • John Chowning at Stanford University • Yamaha DX7 (1983) • Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) adopted 1983 • Digital samplers The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  49. Computer Music • Computer savvy and musical inspiration • Bell Laboratories in the 1950s • Max Mathews • Hiller and Issacson’s software MUSIC (1956) The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition

  50. Important Figures in Electronic Music Edgard Varèse (1883–1965) • French composer • Poème electronique (1956–58) • Philips Pavilion at Brussels World’s Fair • Electronic and concrète sounds, multi-channel tape • Colaborated with Le Corbusier and Iannis Xenakis • Lighting effects and projected images • 400-plus speakers • 2 million people experienced the work The Enjoyment of Music 10th, Shorter Edition