Medieval Music By: Joel Tracy & Lori Snyder Credits Let’s Go!!!
Welcome to Medieval Music You will be learning about Instruments used during Medieval times as well as the History of the music. Let’s begin with Instruments
You will learn about 4 families of instruments used during the medieval times:Strings, Keys, Winds, and Percussions. Let’s begin with Strings
Gamba Listen Description
The Gamba(bass viol da gamba) • Originated by applying a bow to a pre-existing plucked string instrument • Developed in Spain during the late fifteenth century (the tenor viol has the shape, size, and tuning of the Spanish vihuela). • In the year 1600, its outward appearance became standardized. • Of the common sizes of the gamba family, the bass was the largest, and the treble viol was the smallest.
The Dulcimer(Hackbrett) Listen Description
The Dulcimer(Hackbrett) • In English-speaking countries, dulcimer, from dulce melos, (Greek for sweet sound) was the name given to the type of psaltery or box zither • Trapizoid soundbox and which was played by striking the strings with hammers. • In areas around Germany, the term was Hackbrett (or hackbrad, hackbrade, hakkebrett, or hakkebord) meaning chopping board or chopping block
The Lute Listen Description
The Lute • The lute was an ideal accompaniment for voice and other soft instruments • The most eloquent of all solo instruments. • In paintings and other art works the lute is often associated with Apollo, angels, or Orpheus, and it is often mentioned at climactic points in tragedies Take Quiz
This instrument was used to accompany voice: Lute A. Gamba B. Dulcimer C.
This instrument was developed in Spain during 15th Century: Lute A. Gamba B. Dulcimer C.
This instrument was shaped like a trapezoid: Lute A. Gamba B. Dulcimer C.
This instrument was found mostly in Germany: Lute A. Gamba B. Dulcimer C.
STINGS QUIZ RESULTS Strings Results Let’s visit Instruments with keys!!
Harpsichord Description Listen
Harpsichord • In the harpsichord family the string is plucked by a small plectrum, originally of quill. • The variety of sound from these plucked instruments is achieved not primarily by finger pressure, but more subtly by phrasing and articulation. • The harpsichord was used both for solo performance and accompanying in chamber groups and in larger ensembles of the period.
The Hurdy-Gurdy(symphonia) Description Listen
The Hurdy-Gurdy(symphonia) • four string symphonie or organistrum • based on a late fourteenth century Florentine marble fingure in the Vienna Leichtenstein Gallery • Has two unison chanterelles, two drones, and an interior pegbox. • Oblong in shape and has tuneable tangents and a range of two diatonic octaves with drones on g and d1.
The Organetto(portative) Listen Description
The Organetto(portative) • Organetto was from a fifteenth century painting on wood by Hans Memling. • The bellows provide air pressure only on the downswing, so the player has to space the opening of the bellows much as a vocalist carefully places breaths • Notice the wood inlays which appear on both sides as well as the front Take Quiz
What is a four string symphonie or organistrum? Hurdy-Gurdy A. Organetto B. Harpsichord C.
This instrument was used for both solo and accompanying in chamber groups: Hurdy-Gurdy A. Organetto B. Harpsichord C.
This instrument has bellows to provide air pressure: Hurdy-Gurdy A. Organetto B. Harpsichord C.
This instrument has two unison chanterelles, two drones, and an interior peg box: Hurdy-Gurdy A. Organetto B. Harpsichord C. Listen
KEYS QUIZ RESULTS Keys Results Let’s study Wind Instruments!
The Bagpipe Listen Description
The Bagpipe • The origins of the bagpipe can be traced back to the most ancient civilizations. • Rustic instrument in many cultures because a herdsman had the necessary materials at hand: a goat or sheep skin and a reed pipe. • Instrument is mentioned in the Bible, and historians believe that it originated in Sumaria. • Through Celtic migration it was introduced to Persia and India, and subsequently to Greece and Rome.
The Lizard(tenor cornett) Listen Description
The Lizard(tenor cornett) • Tenor of the zink family (also known as lysard or lysarden) has the peculiar curved shape of a flattened letter s. • Shape helps the player cover the finger holes on this longer zink. • The lizard's tone is pleasing, yet rather foggy. • It blends well with voices and plays on one of the inner voices of an ensemble. A Lyserden is listed in the waits' band of Exeter in 1575
The Bladder Pipe Listen Description
The Bladder Pipe • Very distinctive loud instrument which has a reed which is enclosed by an animal bladder. • Performer blows into the bladder through its mouthpiece, a wooden pipe. • The bladder serves as a wind reservoir keeping the lips from touching the reed directly. • This medieval instrument was one of the principal early wind cap instruments and is considered the forerunner to the crumhorn. Take Quiz
Tenor of the zink family: Lizard A. Bagpipe B. Bladder Pipe C.
A very loud instrument with a reed enclosed by an animal organ: Lizard A. Bagpipe B. Bladder Pipe C.
Origins traced back to ancient civilizations: Lizard A. Bagpipe B. Bladder Pipe C.
Introduced to Persia and India through Celtic migration: Lizard A. Bagpipe B. Bladder Pipe C.
WINDS RESULTS Wind Results Now - Check out Percussions!!
Rummelpost Description Listen
Rummelpost • Looks like a small naker but is not played by striking the head. • Sound is generated by sliding the fingers back and forth on a slender wooden rod which is fastened to the center of the head inside the drum shell. • Rosin is placed on the rod to help provide friction induced sounds which are amplified by the drum head.
The Drum Listen Description
The Drum • Drums (tambour, Trommel, tamburo, tambor, drome, dromme, drume), were probably among the earliest instruments. • The first membrane drums consisted of naturally hollow tree trunks covered at one or both ends with the skins of water animals, fish, or reptiles. • Later, skins of hunted game and cattle were used. • Drum bodies could be of wood, metal, earthenware, or bone.
Finger Cymbals Description Listen
Finger Cymbals • Finger cymbals (crotales, zil) have been known since the middle of the 1st millennium BC. • Played in pairs, sometimes one in each hand as pictured, and often in one hand, one held on the thumb and the other on either the index or middle finger • Used to accompany dances, and sometimes held by the dancers themselves, they are still used chiefly in the Islamic cultures and on the Indian subcontinent. Take Quiz
Their bodies were made of wood, metal, or bone: Rummelpost A. Finger cymbals B. Drum C. Listen
Sound is generated by sliding fingers back and forth on a slender wooden rod: Rummelpost A. Finger cymbals B. Drum C. Listen
Played in pairs, often held in hands: Rummelpost A. Finger cymbals B. Drum C. Listen
Looks like a small naker but is not played by striking the head: Rummelpost A. Finger cymbals B. Drum C. Listen
PERCUSSIONS RESULTS Percussion Results History Time!
HISTORY Medieval music is impossible for us to truly appreciate, as it can never be as it was. Most of the music enjoyed in everyday life is lost. Most all we have is sacred in nature, and even that is in a musical “language” that is difficult to understand, at best. Musical notation has changed considerably over the hundreds of years. Much of what we know of music during the thousand years of the middle ages (church, court, and commonplace) comes down to us in our own understanding and examples of music today. Let’s Begin with Secular Music
The area of musical history about which we know the least The kind of music we enjoy today—entertainment Song and instrumental Poetry put to music Performed professionally by wandering musicians Bards Goliards Troubadours SECULAR MUSIC
BARDS • Different roles, depending upon the culture • in Celtic society, a musician hired by a nobleman to create songs of praise for him • in Scandinavian society, skalds (similar to the Celtic bard) composed some of the most well-known and longest-lasting literature • in later English society, a wandering musician who performed for all levels of society